Neighborhood Effects, Opportunity Analysis, and Fair Housing
You'll learn about:
- The concept of neighborhood effects and how they shape life chances and social mobility of local residents
- The techniques of opportunity analysis and how these techniques further fair housing, and facilitate sustainable development planning and opportunity mapping.
- How to use opportunity mapping tools to perform opportunity analysis and meet new fair housing regulations.
The spatial pattern of factors that shape opportunities for low-income residents to escape the cycle of poverty has been of great concern to urban planners. Conceptually, the notion of opportunity is both simple and intuitive: neighborhoods, as unique packages of resources, institutions and socializing agents, play a significant role in determining the welfare and life chances of their residents.
Many attempts have been made to quantify the geography of opportunity and quite literally plot it on a map by combining evidence from studies on neighborhood effects with rapidly expanding spatial data resources and GIS technology. These opportunity maps have not only become increasingly common planning tools but their preparation has been encouraged and facilitated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to help local governments meet new fair housing regulations.
This session addresses the concept of access to opportunity and how opportunity analyses have been used across the nation to meet newly established fair housing rules and to develop regional sustainability plans. It also presents the results of a case study in Baltimore, Maryland, where residents from across the region were asked to define opportunity and identify the extent to which their neighborhood provided access to opportunity. Finally, the session presents new opportunity mapping tools that can be used by communities as they attempt to respond to HUD’s mandate and provide equitable access to opportunity for all residents.
, Natl Ctr for Smart Growth
, College Park
Willow Lung Amam
, University of Maryland at College Park
, College Park
, New Castle
Invited SpeakerExecutive Director of the Citizens Planning and Housing Association in Baltimore, Maryland. Prior to his current position, he served as the State of Maryland’s Secretary of Planning from 2005 to early 2015. Mr. Hall is a professional planner who rose through the ranks of the Maryland Department of Planning from an entry-level staffer to become Secretary. He spent his state planning career working to protect the best of Maryland in the face of unrelenting population growth and was instrumental in helping pass and implement policies strengthening natural resource protection along with many partners in state agencies and the advocacy community. Last year, Mr. Hall was named a "smart growth hero" by 1000 Friends of Maryland at its 20th anniversary gala, and this year Governor O'Malley gave Hall the Admiral of the Chesapeake Bay Award, the highest honor the governor can bestow on an individual for environmental contributions. Prior to becoming secretary of planning, Hall directed the agency’s Land Use Planning and Analysis Group. Understanding that well-conceived and executed imagery can convey development and preservation scenarios better than a string of words, Hall helped develop a range of GIS and data-intensive resources to model potential build environments and bolster local redevelopment efforts. While Secretary of Planning, Hall led projects to perform spatial analysis and to produce maps and GIS applications in support of PlanMaryland, the state's first comprehensive plan for sustainable growth and development. GIS applications were also used for broader Smart Growth and Planning Analysis initiatives such as the Sustainable Growth and Agricultural Preservation Act of 2012. Hall’s Department of Planning was also a major participant in the O'Malley-Brown Administration's MD iMAP initiative. The department also used GIS extensively to support congressional and legislative redistricting applications and analysis. For decades, the Maryland Department of Planning pushed the boundaries of what GIS could do to advance smart growth for Maryland communities, natural areas, the Chesapeake bay and generally to improve quality of life in Maryland.
, Nat Center for Smart Growth
, College Park
Confirmed SpeakerGerrit-Jan Knaap is Professor of Urban Studies and Planning and Executive Director of the National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education at the University of Maryland. Knaap earned his B.S. from Willamette University, his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Oregon, and received post-doctoral training at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, all in economics. Knaap’s research interests include housing markets and policy, the economics and politics of land use planning, the efficacy of economic development instruments, and the impacts of environmental policy. On these subjects, Knaap has published over 60 articles in journals that include the Journal of the American Planning Association, the Journal of Urban Economics, Land Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Policy Analysis and Management; and State and Local Government Review. He received the Chester Rapkin award for the best paper published in Volume 10 of the Journal of Planning Education and Research, with Greg Lindsey he received the 1998 best of ACSP award, and in 2006 he received the Outstanding Planner Award from the Maryland Chapter of the American Planning Association. Funding for his research has been provided by the National Science Foundation, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, and numerous other federal, state, and local government agencies. Knaap is the co-author or co-editor of nine books. He currently serves on the State of Maryland’s Smart Growth Subcabinet, the Maryland Sustainable Growth Commission, and the Science and Technical Advisory Committee to the Maryland Climate Commission.