North and South Walnut Street
A five block stretch that runs South between NE 4th Street to S Maple Avenue.
Given the street's architectural grandeur, as well as its growing number of unique businesses, access to the Mispillion River walkway, and role as the main venue for the town's developing visual and performing arts scene, there is a level of energy and vibrancy about Walnut Street that is comparable to main streets in cities two or three times as large. Adding to this energy is the pride residents have about Milford and the motto of the town's marketing campaign, "Art Town, River Town, Home Town."
With the decline in shipbuilding, Milford's economy shifted to agriculture, dental supplies, materials and innovations through the pioneering work of L.D. Caulk, and, more recently, tourism. To help Milford capitalize on its history and unique character, the town renamed its revitalization committee Downtown Milford Inc., (DMI) in 1995 and made $2.2 million in public and private investments during the next five years, including sidewalk and street improvements, erosion control, and the Mispillion River walkway.
In 2007, additional improvements were made along Walnut Street including removal of utility poles, burying power lines, adding benches and sidewalk planters, and adding historic lighting. Complementing these physical improvements is a rebranding and marketing campaign, and Walnut Street's inclusion as one of Delaware Main Streets in 2008.
Led by DMI, the rebranding and marketing campaign is using the town's farmers market, music and arts festivals, holiday celebrations, and volunteerism to stimulate economic activity along Walnut Street and throughout downtown. For Walnut Street business owners George Caroll and Chuck Stanko, the campaign confirms what they discovered themselves when they "drove up and down the East Coast looking for a small town with a homey feel" where they could locate a bakery and coffee shop.
- Milford settled 1680; Walnut Street not established until local merchant and plantation owner Joseph Oliver lays out first city streets (1787)
- Downtown revitalization committee arises from City Council Workshop discussion (1992); city council motivated to revitalize downtown business area including Walnut Street
- Comprehensive plan (2008) addresses city economic issues, preservation initiatives
- Downtown Milford Inc., wins four outstanding achievement awards at the Maryland/Delaware Revitalization Conference for its work on Walnut Street, downtown area (2010)
- City's 2013 draft comprehensive plan highlights economic development efforts; recommends development of historic preservation ordinances to ensure integrity of historic character
- Survey finds 61 percent of residents agreed city needs historic preservation ordinance (2008)
Community, Economic Support
- Downtown Milford Inc., (DMI) encourages volunteers to help with large "hayrack-style" baskets on the lampposts along Walnut every spring as part the In Bloom program
- Fire damaged several buildings along Walnut Street (2003)
- DMI participated in federally supported "Project Pop-Up," which provides rent-free commercial space on Walnut Street for three months to selected entrepreneurs (2012)
- Every year, The ART project, organized by DMI, chooses artists from the region to turn four-foot boat models into creative interpretations of the town motto; boats replaced on the Riverwalk
- Since 2004, 20 downtown businesses, many located along Walnut, contributed $40,000 to the city's revitalization and development causes through donations and sponsorships
- City and private sector have contributed to downtown signage, now valued at $70,000; includes historic and cultural signage, downtown directional signage, business signage
- Since 1997, River Walk Farmers Market held every Saturday on South Walnut
- Toasting the Town St. Patrick's Day Pub Crawl held every St. Patrick's Day along Walnut Street
- Annual Holiday Stroll along Walnut occurs several days before Christmas
- Milford Community Parade occurs in October, temporarily turning Milford into state's second-largest city; includes music, food, activities along Walnut Street
- Mispillion Arts League holds "Fine Art Show" every year featuring food from 10 Walnut Street restaurants, bakeries, and cafes; event showcases Milford's growing art scene
- Bug & Bud Festival celebrates Arbor Day, drawing more than 8,000 visitors; activities along Walnut Street include ladybug costume parade, live entertainment
Milford, Delaware's prosperous, 18th century ship building days are long gone, but from that wealth-producing era came the investment used to expand downtown and develop a new main street — North and South Walnut. Well-to-do families in Milford spared little expense when building on Walnut Street, whether in the Federal, Greek revival, or a Victorian architectural style.
Eight blocks of Palafox Street between Wright Street and Main Street.
Aligned with expansive sidewalks, two capacious plazas, a median, and buildings that juxtapose Spanish Colonial wrought iron and cast iron facades with the Chicago School's large, plate-glass windows, Palafox brings together period details with both colonial- and progressive-era architecture.
Prompting creation of a preservation plan that would "help write many of the heretofore unknown details of Pensacola's colorful history," as a city advisory committee wrote in 1966, was the discovery in the early 1960s of colonial-era foundations along Palafox and elsewhere in Pensacola. To help implement the preservation plan, a historic preservation board with an architectural review committee was formed in 1967.
The city also established the Pensacola Downtown Improvement Board in 1972 to support and improve economic activity for businesses located along the street. The board, composed of five members who own businesses on Palafox or live in Pensacola, has helped with beautifying the street and enhancing building property values. Also to help draw more customers and improve the downtown business activity, Palafox was converted to two-way traffic in 2009.
Wide sidewalks, colorful Crepe Myrtle trees, and balconies extending from building facades protect pedestrians from the hot Florida sun and provide a comfortable distance from motor vehicles in the right-of-way. Two public spaces anchor the street: the Spanish-designed Plaza Ferdinand, which is on Palafox between Government and Zaragoza Streets, and the Martin Luther King Jr. Plaza. This plaza, located on Palafox where it intersects with Garden and Wright Streets, hosts one of the country's most celebrated weekly farmers markets.
The story of Palafox Street doesn't stop here. The city's 2010 comprehensive plan calls for extending the vibrant and pedestrian-friendly ambiance of Palafox along the street's southernmost blocks as well. By redeveloping the vacant lots and parking areas there, the vibrancy of Palafox will extend to the city's recently revitalized waterfront.
- Originally named George Street after King George III, Palafox retains original grid design laid out by British engineer Elias Durnford in 1764
- Pensacola was capital of West Florida during periods of British, Spanish, and American occupation with Palafox Street serving as city's central business and cultural artery (1760s)
- Spanish Surveyor General Vicente Sebastian Pintado renamed street Calle de Palafox after Jose Robelledo de Palafox, 1st Duke of Saragossa (1812)
- Pintado modified Palafox British plan according to orders from the Council of Indies and Spanish colonial town planning concepts; set aside Plaza Ferdinand as public space (1812)
- Palafox Street was Pensacola's main commercial hub after Civil War; city became one of the largest export centers of yellow pine and red snapper for the Gulf Coast (1880)
- Eighty percent of the buildings along Palafox Street built during the Progressive era by optimistic businessmen wanting to erect edifices that stand the test of time (1890-1920)
Planning and Preservation Accomplishments
- City discontinued street car service, removing tracks and installing green space in North Palafox's median between Garden and Wright Streets (1932)
- Palafox Street extends through both Pensacola Historic District (added to National Register of Historic Places 1970) and the North Hill Historic District (added to National Register 1983)
- Pensacola Community Redevelopment Agency created in 1980; charged with preserving and improving Palafox's historic architecture, maintaining landscaping and sidewalks
- Crepe Myrtle trees along Palafox help Pensacola gain designation as a Tree City USA (1990)
- City's 2010 comprehensive plan calls for stronger historic preservation measures; also focuses on Palafox's economic development and connection to waterfront
- City and county join together in 2013 to place removable bollards at all entrances to the Palafox entertainment district
- American National Bank (226 South Palafox, 1910) designed by architect J.E.R. Carpenter; the Sullivanesque skyscraper remained Pensacola's tallest building until 1974
- U.S. Customs House and Post Office (223 South Palafox, 1887) is a renaissance revival structure connected to the Esdcambia County governmental complex
- Saenger Theater ( 118 South Palafox, 1925) designed by New Orleans architect Emile Weil; $15 million renovation (2007-09) preserves its Spanish Baroque architecture
- Masonic Temple (2 South Palafox, 1897) constructed for a hardware store; Romanesque Revival building retains its Masonic symbol on the roof facade
- Andrew Jackson Monument (Plaza Ferdinand VII, 1935) designed by Eduardo Anievas; the bronze and granite bust signifies Jackson's brief tenure as Florida's first American governor
- King Plaza features Dr. King bust sculpted by Atlanta artist Ayokunle Odeleye (1992)
- Seven-story Blount Building (corner Palafox and West Garden streets, 1907) designed in the Chicago School style; built for local attorney William Alexander Blount
Events and Celebrations
- New Year's Eve Pelican Drop occurs in Plaza Ferdinand and draws crowds of more than 50,000; a 14-foot-tall pelican statue descends a 100-foot platform at midnight
- Annual Mardi Gras Parade attracts 6,000 participants, more than 200 floats
- Investors to spend $1 million to convert vacant Palafox parcel into courtyard for food trucks
- Downtown Improvement Board manages Palafox special events involving street closure, portable restrooms, additional police and EMTs, and event cleanup
Among the handful of streets in the U.S. to shape and be shaped by 250 years of British, Spanish, and American influence is Palafox Street, the gateway to Pensacola, Florida, and the city's main stage for holiday and seasonal celebrations that draw up to 50,000 people at a time.
Kalakaua Avenue between Kapiolani Boulevard at the Hawaii Convention Center and Poni Moi Road at Kapiolani Park.
With its overhead canopy of palms, Kalakaua is an avenue characterized by its constant movement and high energy. It is a place that brings together residents with out-of-state tourists and world travelers, those of wealth with those of more modest means. People come here to work, shop, eat, vacation, sunbathe, swim, surf, or take in any number of events throughout the year that transform Kalakaua into a thriving, urban gathering space.
Setting the stage for Kalakaua Avenue's tremendous success was construction of the Ala Wai Canal. Completed in 1928 after seven years of construction, it allowed the area's rice paddies and wetlands to be drained, which created Waikiki's expanse of developable land.
The high-rise hotel building boom along Kalakaua Avenue and Waikiki reached its peak during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In response, the city and county of Honolulu adopted a Waikiki Special Design District Ordinance in 1974 to restrict building heights and prevent the area from being overbuilt. To those who characterized the area as a "concrete wasteland," the damage was already done. Honolulu's new mayor, Eileen Anderson, responded with the "Waikiki 2000" plan in 1981. Despite her call for urgent action, the plan was not implemented. Honolulu's next mayor, Frank Fasi, guided the city through a high-profile planning process for Waikiki funded by the Queen Emma Foundation, a major land owner in the district.
The plan that resulted sought to make the experience of walking along Kalakaua Avenue "feel more like being in a park" rather than on a densely urbanized street, according to Honolulu Mayor Jeremy Harris who took office in 1994. During the next 10 years, the city and county would spend more than $100 million on Kalakaua Avenue for new sidewalks, landscaping, walkways, historic-style street lighting, street furnishings, and plazas. Also added was the Waikiki Historic Trail designed by native Hawaiian activist and historian George Kanahele. The trail's 23 sites, many of which are located on or within steps of Kalakaua Avenue, highlight Hawaiian culture and history.
Given the avenue's location between the Ko'olau Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, how the city and state address flooding in the Ala Wai watershed and sea level rise as a result of climate change will largely influence and shape the avenue's future. A plan under development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is evaluating various options to protect Waikiki and Kalakaua Avenue from a 100-year flood.
In response to projected sea-level rise affecting not just Kalakaua Avenue and Waikiki but all coastal areas in Hawaii, the state is among the leaders in the U.S. establishing a framework that enables local governments to plan for and adapt to changes from climate change. Last year Governor Neil Abercrombie signed into law Senate Bill 2745 that amends the Hawaii State Planning Act to include priority guidelines addressing adaptation to climate change. The amendment recognizes that sea level rise in Hawaii will occur and that adaptation strategies must be adopted. The private sector also is responding. For example, the Kyo-ya Hotels and Resorts says the new, 300-foot-tall Diamond Head Tower hotel the firm is seeking approval to build next to Waikiki Beach will be constructed to withstand rising sea levels and other impacts caused by climate change.
- Long associated with Hawaiian Royalty and VIP visitors
- Kalakaua serves as the main entryway into Waikiki since the 1800s; known as Waikiki road until 1908, the street is named in honor of King Kalakaua, the last king of the Kingdom of Hawaii
- 1868 carriage replaced by horse-driven tramcar in 1888 and electric trolley in 1901; in 2004, Bus Rapid Transit System for Kalakaua is discontinued because of costs and low ridership
- Ala Wai Canal (1921-1928) initially proposed by Lucius Pinkham, president of Hawaii's Territorial Board of Health; canal enables wetlands drainage, allows Waikiki development
- Throughout World War II, several hotels along Kalakaua, including the Royal Hawaiian Hotel, served as a place of rest and relaxation for U.S. servicemen; tourism picks up after war ends
- University of Hawaii study (2012) details state-wide sustainability milestones — greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2020 and adoption of 70 percent clean energy by 2030
- Studies by geologist Charles "Chip" Fletcher and others predict sea level rise for Hawaii of 1 foot by 2050 and 3 feet by 2100; 3-foot rise would flood Kalakaua Avenue as it is built today
- Without adaptation, losing Waikiki beach could cause $2 billion drop in annual visitor spending
Economic, Urban Development
- Waikiki Livable Community project examines how public streets, sidewalks, rights-of-way are used and how they could be improved for better transport (2003)
- During the past decade, private sector spent more than $3.4 billion upgrading infrastructure throughout Waikiki and along Kalakaua, refurbishing and redesigning hotels
- Kalakaua Avenue is North America's fifth-most expensive retail market; luxury stores include Chanel, Prada, Tiffany's; as of 2004, storefronts along Kalakaua are nearly 100 percent occupied
- Waikiki is the most-advertised tourist destination in state, contributing almost 44 percent of Hawaii's tourism revenue; accommodates approximately 85,000 visitors daily
Tourism, Local Attractions
- Royal Hawaiian Hotel, also known as the Pink Palace of the Pacific, is icon of Hawaii's glory days; built in 1927, hotel was designed in the Spanish and Moorish style
- Moana Hotel (1901), also known as the First Lady of Waikiki, listed in the National Register of Historic Places; hotel designed in a Hawaiian Gothic fusion style
- Diamond Head is a volcanic tuff cone located right off Kalakaua; designated as a National Natural Landmark (1968); tuff cone resembles the shape of a tuna's dorsal fin
- Waikiki Historic Trail designed in 1994; marked by bronze signs in the shape of surf boards, the trail leads tourists to important historic sights both on and off Kalakaua Avenue
- Kalakaua Avenue often closed to traffic for parades, other significant events including Honolulu Marathon, Brunch on the Beach, Sunset on the Beach
- Hawaii's largest and oldest public park, Kapiolani Regional Park, located along east end of Kalakaua; park serves as a natural border between Waikiki and Diamond Head
- Fort DeRussy Military Reservation, located near Royal Hawaiian Hotel, was important American bastion of defense (1908); it is now a public park with the Hawaii Army Museum and a hotel and dedicated to the U.S. military
Kalakaua Avenue is one of the most economically prosperous, yet environmentally vulnerable, streets in America. Located alongside the world-famous Waikiki beach, the street commands sweeping views of Diamond Head; provides the address for a number of the country's most opulent retailers; showcases a unique architectural fusion of Hawaiian, Gothic, Asian, Spanish, and Moorish designs; and is part of the repository of Hawaii's immense cultural heritage.
Virginia City, Nevada
Approximately one mile starting north at 113 North C Street and 537 South C Street to the south.
Known for its 100-mile-views over Nevada's basin-and-range and late 19th century architecture, C Street is situated along sloping terrain. In 1966, Virginia City was named the nation's largest historic landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. In 1969, Nevada State Statute created the Comstock Historic District Commission that today oversees and regulates development for the preservation of the historic treasure. As a result, C Street is remarkably well-preserved, with its historic architecture and streetscape reminiscent of the Old West. Fans of the western television show Bonanza might recognize C Street, which was used when filming the Cartwright family's trips into town for supplies.
A handful of structures on C Street that were originally constructed in 1862 survived the fire of 1875. When more than half of Virginia City burned in that fire, it was rebuilt in a matter of months. To date, nearly all the buildings of Virginia City's heyday remain intact and in use along the C street corridor. Two of those buildings are the Fourth Ward School Museum and The Territorial Enterprise Building.
The Fourth Ward School, built in 1876 to honor the nation's centennial, is a prominent building on C Street. The four-story building could accommodate more than 1,000 students and boasted state-of-the-art heating, ventilation, and sanitation systems as well as water piped to all floors. Today, the Fourth Ward School is a museum where visitors can learn about the history of Virginia City and the Comstock Lode, which was the first major silver discovery in the U.S. The Territorial Enterprise Building was built in 1876 as the third and final office of Nevada's first newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise. In 1862, a young Samuel Clemens began his writing career as a reporter for the Territorial Enterprise under the pen name of Mark Twain. Today, the building is the Mark Twain Museum.
Several preservation efforts for C Street have been made to continue its legacy. After undertaking an archeological survey of the Virginia City National Historic Landmark, Storey County crafted Project 85 which constitutes a total survey of all buildings in Virginia City, including those on C Street. Storey County also adopted a master plan in 1994, currently being updated, and local zoning ordinances that balance sustainable growth and modern mining with tourism and historic preservation.
Planning and Preservation
- In 1961, Virginia City along with C Street became part of nation's largest historic landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966
- In 1969, Nevada State Statute created Comstock Historic District Commission that today oversees and regulates development for preservation of historic landmark
- First comprehensive inventory of historic buildings and structures, known as the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (HAER), undertaken in 1980 by Department of the Interior; inventory provided initial archaeological planning studies
- In 1985, Project 85 constituted a total survey of all buildings in Virginia City, including those on C Street. Project also proposed a cultural resources management plan and pointed toward development of the Virginia City Tourism Authority to encourage cultural tourism
- Storey County adopted master plan in 1994 and local zoning ordinances that balance sustainable growth and modern mining with tourism and historic preservation; now being updated
- Visitor's Center located on C Street helps market the historic area for tourism purposes.
- Most C Street buildings are mixture of masonry and wood frame dating after 1875 when fire swept through the city
- Territorial Enterprise Building built in 1876 as the third and final office of Nevada's first newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise; building is an example of vernacular 19 century commercial style; constructed with a high decorative parapet and a cast-iron storefront with fluted Tuscan pilasters
- Fourth Ward School architect C.M. Bennett may have drawn inspiration from popular 19th century architectural pattern books; Second Empire structure with distinctive Mansard roof
- Wooden-plank sidewalks which extend along C Street for several blocks and gas street lamps reflect the character of 19th century mining town
- Authentic Old-West character, countless 19th century buildings create experience where visitors can truly "step back in time"
- Nearly a million visit Virginia City and C Street each year; visitors enjoy laid-back shopping with gift shops, gourmet candy stores, and eclectic restaurants
- C Street is home to several museums including Fourth Ward School Museum, Comstock Firemen's Museum, the Mark Twain Museum at the Territorial Enterprise, and The Way It Was Museum
- Several unique events happen on C Street, including parades, Street Vibrations, and World Championship Outhouse Races
The legacy of the miners and prospectors remains along C Street where wooden-plank walkways, gas street lamps, historic buildings with awnings, and swinging saloon doors harken back to the time of the discovery of the Comstock Lode. In 1859, the discovery transformed the area from an encampment of tents along the slope of Mount Davidson into the "richest place on earth."
Las Vegas, New Mexico
Two blocks between the Las Vegas town Plaza and the Gallinas River.
Las Vegas was first settled in 1835 by 29 Mexican subsistence farmers who obtained a land grant from the Mexican government to an area west of the Gallinas River. They organized their town following the 16th century Spanish Laws of the Indies, which called for communities to be planned around a central plaza. This plaza later anchored the west end of Bridge Street when it was built.
The arrival of the railroad, besides spurring a building boom along Bridge Street and attracting a kaleidoscope of residents, merchants and cultures including Spanish, Mexican, American, German Jewish, and French Canadian, precipitated development of a new town — named East Las Vegas — on the opposite side of the Gallinas River. A bridge was built in 1909 connecting the original town of West Las Vegas with East Las Vegas, but long-standing social, ethnic and historical differences kept the towns estranged from each other until the majority of the population of both towns voted for consolidation in February 1968.
Preservation of Bridge Street and eight other historic districts in Las Vegas has spanned several decades and involved several generations of residents and local leaders. Fidel "Chief" Gonzales, the first mayor of the consolidated city, initiated a historic preservation program suggested by resident Rheua Pearce. A survey of the city's 900 historic properties was done by the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (HPD) during the 1970s.
Following the survey in 1978 the city created the Bridge Street Historic District, established a local Design Review Board, and adopted various ordinances aimed at protecting the street's historic character. Architect and New Mexico Highlands University professor, Robert Mishler, was among the founding members serving on the local design review board and an early leader and advocate of historic preservation in the city.
During this same period, the Las Vegas Citizens Committee for Historic Preservation (CCHP) was founded to protect and promote the town's historic, cultural, and architectural heritage. Local business owners also played a key role in helping restore several of the street's historic buildings in need of repair. Texas entrepreneur William Slick, who fell in love with Las Vegas during a trip here in the late 1970s, returned in 1982 and formed Plaza Vieja Partnership, Ltd., involving owners of historic buildings on Bridge Street. The Plaza Vieja Partnership has since restored 15 buildings and tripled the downtown occupancy rate.
Others contributing to Bridge Street's revitalization has been local artist Roy Montibon who purchased two vacant buildings from CCHP (referred to as the "Chapman Hall/Winternitz Building Block" 125 and 127 Bridge Street). The buildings were first acquired by CCHP in 1986 and were partially restored by the organization. Montibon purchased the buildings around 2008, completed the restoration, and created a gallery space for local artists to showcase their work and help jump-start creative activity throughout the city. Since 2005, Bridge Street proprietors have participated in the state's "Main Street" program designed to improve and expand locally owned businesses.
History and Culture
- Las Vegas founded in 1835 on west side of Gallinas River by Mexican settlers who follow 16th century Spanish Laws of the Indies; original town added to National Register of Historic Places (1983)
- Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad (AT&SF) laid out one mile from town plaza on July 4, 1874; European influences resulted in new construction materials, planning practices, and architecture along the street
- "New Town" (located east of Gallinas River bridge) designed with a grid system and founded in 1881; The first masonry building constructed here
- In 1884, New Town and Old Town officially divided; West Las Vegas (Old Town) incorporated 1888; East Las Vegas (New Town) incorporated 1903; bridge connects the two towns (1909)
- Great Depression, severe drought during the 1950s, and closing of the AT&SF headquarters in 1959 causes Las Vegas's economic downturn; population declines
- West Las Vegas and East Las Vegas remain separate and distinct towns until consolidation (1970); Fidel Gonzales elected first mayor of consolidated city
- Story of Las Vegas's history and residents chronicled in the book Learning Las Vegas by New York City landscape designer Elizabeth Barlow Rogers (2013)
- Bridge Street and the town plaza are among first surveyed by the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division in the 1970s
- Historic preservation ordinance adopted in 1972; First Cultural Historic Districts established by ordinance in 1976; Las Vegas Design Review Board established (1978)
- Las Vegas Citizens Committee for Historic Preservation founded ( 1977); main office located at 116 Bridge Street; collaborates with city to develop historic walking tours
- University of New Mexico publishes Architecture & Preservation in Las Vegas, Volume I (1977),Volume II (1982), Volume III (1984); each publication focuses on Bridge Street and Plaza
- Plaza Vieja Partnership, Ltd., economic development project, raises $2.3 million in 1985 to rehabilitate about 15 buildings along Bridge Street and town plaza
- Las Vegas designated state "Main Street" town in 2005; Las Vegas receives $90,000 in 2012 to renovate "Breezeway" providing access from Bridge Street to off-street parking
- Over 50 films have been shot in Las Vegas, many of which use Bridge Street and town plaza; Las Vegas celebrating 101 years of filmmaking in 2013
- City was designated one of two pilot New Mexico Arts and Cultural Districts (2008)
- Downtown Action Plan adopted (September 2010); focuses on Bridge Street, plaza parking, vegetation, economic vitality, preservation
- Main Street de Las Vegas installs street furniture and paints facades of vacant buildings along Bridge and throughout plaza; surveillance coverage also implemented (2010)
- Las Vegas is served by Amtrak; train stops at historic Las Vegas Railroad Depot (opened 1899)
Architecture and Historic Structures
- More than 900 Las Vegas buildings listed on National Register of Historic Places, including Bridge Street locations
- Plaza Hotel, 230 Plaza (1882); Italianate-style structure center of commerce and provided lodging for affluent travelers; notable guests included Jesse James and Doc Holiday
- Romero Block, 174-178 Bridge Street (1919), built by local political leader and member of wealthy Romero family, Secundino Romero; two-story, Mission Revival brick building
- First National Bank, 181 Bridge Street (1880); two-story, Italianate-style structure with light brown sandstone and elegant, pressed-metal cornices
- Charles Ilfeld Building, 224 North Plaza (1890); designed in Italianate style and built by prominent Jewish Ilfeld family; building served as headquarters for Charlie Ilfeld's company
- Campus Kiva Theater, 107 Bridge Street (1913); theater has notable Art Deco facade with projecting marquee and pressed metal center detail with neon accents
- Baca Building, 144 Bridge Street (1884); two-story Italianate building has sandstone side walls and brick veneer front; originally housed Houghton Hardware and Segura's Confectionary
- Demarias House — Our Lady of Sorrows Parish, 1810 East Plaza (1882); Territorial-Southwest vernacular style; constructed from adobe and stucco
- E. Romero House and Fire Company, 155 Bridge Street (1909); built in World's Fair Classic style; large folding door with pressed metal cornice in a dental pattern
Located in the finest example of New Mexico's territorial-era commercial districts, Bridge Street blends its "Wild West" origins as a crossroads along the Santa Fe Trail with a heterogeneous mix of restored Greek Revival, Italianate, Georgian Revival, Queen Anne, Neoclassical, and Colonial Revival architecture constructed after the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1879 and unleashed a building boom.
Corning, New York
Five blocks of East and West Market between Bridge Street to the west and Wall Street to the east.
The Fortune 500 company Corning, Inc. has shaped much of Corning's history and development, but so too, have residents and community leaders. The first to call for protecting Market Street's outstanding architecture was a group of women led by Ernestine King, Jinny Wright, and Jean Wosinski during the 1960s. They later formed the group Care for Corning in the early 1970s.
Interest in planning Corning's future became even more widespread in 1972 following Hurricane Agnes, which left Market Street four feet under water. Some of the city's federal disaster funds for Agnes were used to make infrastructure improvements along the street. The nonprofit organization Market Street Restoration Agency, created two years after the hurricane, joined efforts to protect the street's historic architecture and unique qualities.
Connections fostered by the Restoration Agency with the National Trust for Historic Preservation led to Market Street becoming a national prototype for the trust's national "Main Street" program designed to help communities develop strong, locally owned businesses. With local businesses that celebrate generations of family owners, Historic Market Street is rooted in decades of tradition and long-term investment.
The progression of planning and plan implementation that began in the wake of Hurricane Agnes continues today. A second $5.2 million renovation was completed last year of the pedestrian-only Centerway Bridge that connects Market Street with the Corning Museum of Glass. The $6 million Corning Transportation Center will enable the city to better accommodate tour buses that bring a half-million visitors to the glass museum and downtown Corning each year.
- Proximity to state's canal system fostered city's industrial growth; railroad arrived during 1880s
- Fire destroyed 40 buildings in downtown Corning (1856); only Concert Hall Block (2 East Market) remained; buildings along street rebuilt using predominantly brick and stone
- Brown's Cigar Store (6 West Market) built in the late 1870s in Victorian Gothic style, contrasting brick work highlights architectural features
- First Bank Building (5-9 East Market), Renaissance Revival style using applied masonry (1882)
- In 1868, the Brooklyn Flint Glass Company moved to Corning from New York City; changed its name to Corning Glass Works, and in 1989 became Corning Incorporated
- Tropical Storm Agnes brought heavy rains (1972), causing Chemung River to flood; floodwaters reached four feet on Market Street
Planning, Funding, Community Organizations
- Market Street Restoration Agency (MSRA) established 1974; oversees rebuilding of Market Street; becomes model for National Trust for Historic Preservation's Main Street Program
- Market Street listed as a National Historic District 1974; boundaries expanded 2000; subject to numerous master plans, design guidelines, signage ordinances
- Centerway Square closed to traffic, and urban plaza created in 1989
- Since 2001, more than 20 buildings on street have undergone rehab for upper-floor residential units
- First rehabilitation — three-story, seven-unit conversion — cost $1.8 million (2009)
- Market Street Restoration Agency becomes part of Corning's Gaffer District, a business improvement district (2006); responsible for storefront and facade improvements
- Corning, Inc., has been a major funder of improvements to downtown Corning
- Downtown collaboration involving City of Corning, Corning Inc., Corning's Gaffer District, Market Street Restoration Agency, Three Rivers Development Corp., along with private sector investment
Physical Elements, Amenities, Events
- More than 100 storefronts with some family-operated businesses dating to the late 1800s; mix of retail and service businesses; more than 80 upper-floor residential units
- Predominately Victorian-era architecture including Romanesque and Gothic Revival
- Streetscape beautification include public art displays, decorative light fixtures, trash receptacles, seasonal flowers, professionally groomed trees, specialty signage, and bike racks
- Additional amenities include side-pitched curb cuts, shallow grade sidewalk ramps, intersection detector pads, and bicycle racks, funded by a Community Block Development Grant (2009)
- Centerway Square, an urban plaza on street, features a restored historic clock tower, brick pavers, benches, wrought-iron tables and chairs, honey locust trees, free Wi-Fi
- Two parks near street, Riverfront Centennial Park and Buechner Park; amenities include an outdoor pavilion and amphitheater; Centennial Park hosts the local farmers' market
- Two world-class museums, the Corning Museum of Glass and the Rockwell Museum of Western Art, within walking distance of street
- Corning's Centerway Bridge, a pedestrian walkway, provides a direct route from Market Street and Centerway Square to the city's northside, which includes the Corning YMCA and the Corning Museum of Glass
- Daily shuttle provided free by the Corning Museum of Glass; features four stops, including Market Street
- GlassFest attracts more than 5,000 to street; Centerway Square hosts concerts, other events
Across the Chemung River and Corning Incorporated, western New York's third-most popular tourist destination, are five blocks of opulent, 19th century Victorian commercial architecture beautifully restored along Market Street. The buildings — some dating back 180 years — along with more than 100 store-front businesses, upper-floor living quarters, and a centrally located plaza exuding European charm, make this the heart and soul of downtown Corning.
Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania
Broadway encompasses a two block stretch from the intersection with U.S. Route 209 to Hill Road adjacent to the Mauch Chunk Opera House.
By the mid-1800s the town was on the threshold of its most prosperous era, marked by an unprecedented building boom on Broadway by a handful of families who built a collection of expensive mansions later nicknamed "Millionaire's Row." Comprising an eclectic mix of architecture — from Italianate and Second Empire to Queen Anne, Romanesque, and Classical — the homes were accented by intricately detailed and colorfully ornamented porches, shutters, roofs, windows, and doors.
Alongside these homes with their delicate architectural features are other buildings on Broadway, such as the fortress-styled Carbon County prison, that reflect the grittier and more rebellious aspects of living in Jim Thorpe during the 19th century. This is where several hangings took place between 1877 and 1879. The executed persons who were convicted of murder — some argue they were innocent —belonged to the Molly Maguires, a secret society of coal miners.
By 1933 coal mining in the region came to an end, precipitating several decades of economic decline. The mansions of Millionaire's Row, although not torn down, fell into disrepair. Acting on a suggestion by a local newspaperman, residents pledged a nickel a week for five years in order to attract industry. Ultimately they voted in 1954 to rename their town Jim Thorpe after the celebrated and widely known Olympic athlete.
Ever since it was founded, the town was threatened by flooding from Mauch Chunk Creek, which could inundate Broadway with water as high as the second floor of the Carbon County Courthouse. To mitigate the flooding, a dam was constructed in 1972 — the same year Hurricane Agnes hit and brought enough rain that had the dam not been built, Broadway would have suffered $2 million in damages.
Since the downtown area of Jim Thorpe was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, individual property owners have taken the initiative to restore many of Broadway's historic buildings, including the magnificent Inn at Jim Thorpe. Originally the New American Hotel, it was built by Cornelius Connor where his White Swan Hotel stood before it was destroyed by the town's 1849 great fire.
- Philip Ginder discovered outcrop of anthracite coal at Summit Hill (1791); Mauch Chunk founded 1818; coal transported using barges on Lehigh River
- Fire swept across lower Broadway, 30 buildings lost (1849); provides space for new, more opulent public and private buildings reflecting increasing wealth of city and some residents
- Lehigh Valley Railroad built by Asa Packer (1855); Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad reached Jim Thorpe (1869); station located on Broadway; used to ship out coal, bring tourists to town
- Switchback gravity railroad, originally used for coal transportation, became one of country's first thrill rides (1872); tourist attraction for visitors to Broadway
- Molly Maguires trials; four prisoners hanged at Carbon County Prison (1877); between 1878 and 1879, three more convicted members of the Molly Maguires in Mauch Chunk were hanged
- Trolley service began in 1901, taking tourists between Broadway and summit of Flagstaff mountain; trolley continued until 1925
- Last coal shipment using Lehigh Canal in 1932; switchback railroad dismantled (1933)
Planning and Revitalization
- Mauch Chunk Daily Times suggested renaming town to address declining economy (1951)
- Funds from residents who pledged 5 cents a week for five years to attract industry were used to move the remains of celebrated Olympian Jim Thorpe from Oklahoma to Mauch Chunk
- Carbon County Tourist Promotion Agency launched promo (1968) connected to Molly Maguires film with Sean Connery, which uses Carbon County Courthouse and Broadway as movie set
- Mauch Chunk Lake Park with Lehigh River rafting (1974); draws 150,000 tourists annually
- Carbon County Planning Commission retains Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Associates of Philadelphia to address town revitalization (1979)
- Main Street program develops design guidelines to help repair blighted buildings; architectural and parking guidebooks produced; old-time Christmas promotion (1981)
- Plans call for connection between Broadway and 165-mile Delaware and Lehigh Valley trail; businesses along Broadway adding bike racks, possible "bike spas" for guests arriving by bicycle
- Millionaire's Row houses designed in the Second Empire style (1852-1870); building at 72-74 Broadway epitomizes style with mansard roofs, oversized brackets, paneled cornices
- Inn at Jim Thorpe (24 Broadway, 1849) designed by Cornelius Conner; has Italianate influences and two-story balcony ornamented with decorative cast iron railings; renovated in 1989
- Carbon County Court House (4 Broadway, 1893) reflects Richardsonian Romanesque style with heavy masonry massing, rounded windows, rough-faced native Rockport stone
- Former YMCA (69 Broadway, 1893) design influenced by classical revival elements; pedimented windows and doorway, Ionic-columned balcony, denticulated cornice
- Dimmick Memorial Library (54 Broadway, 1889) designed by J. Rooney Williamson; cottage-style, cross-gabled with terra-cotta panel ornamentation around doorway, cornices, gable ends
With a gentle curve, Broadway juxtaposes picturesque Victorian architecture with the high and steep mountains that form the Lehigh River Valley. The borough of Jim Thorpe, originally named Mauch Chunk, was a company town founded and built by Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company owners Josiah White and Erskine Hazard after anthracite coal was discovered in nearby Summit Hill in 1791.
Benjamin Franklin Parkway
The entire boulevard starting from the east at 16th and Arch Street across from JFK Plaza (Love Park) and continuing northwest to the Philadelphia Museum of Art on Kelly Drive.
Welcomed with praise and criticism by turn-of-the-century Philadelphians, implementation of the parkway was "a civic movement of international proportion." Inspired by the late 19th century City Beautiful movement, many residents began advocating for a broad boulevard to connect Philadelphia's business district with Fairmount Park. Since a boulevard on this order was not contemplated in William Penn's 17th century grid-street plan for the city, the new right-of-way would require numerous residences and businesses to be removed, instigating myriad social, political, economic, and legal battles. Nonetheless, Philadelphia's city council unanimously passed a bill in 1892 initiating the development of plans for the parkway.
Comparisons to the Champs-Élysées and references as "a little slice of Paris in Philadelphia" are not without merit. French architects Paul Cret and Jacques Greiber's worked separately on the street's plan, each calling for generous amounts of green space through the use of wide medians, parks and two large traffic circles. Eakins Oval was named after Philadelphia painter Thomas Eakins while Logan Circle was inspired by Paris's Place de La Concorde.
Since its completion in 1926, Benjamin Franklin Parkway has evolved into the city's "cultural mecca" with some of the nation's premier art galleries and educational institutions. The Fairmount Park Art Association, which provided the city's planning initiatives with tremendous support, facilitated the erection of the Franklin Institute, the Free Library of Philadelphia, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art — which anchors the parkway at its western end point. The Rodin Museum, containing the largest collection of Auguste Rodin's work outside of Paris, as well as the Barnes Foundation, an art institution featuring modernist painters from France, further emphasize the parkway's French influences.
The right-of-way also is a neighborhood where 20,000 apartment dwellers live, and a civic space that accommodated more than a million people during one of the Live 8 benefit concerts in 2005.
- Developers John Pennington (1871) and Charles Kline Landis (1884) separately introduced the idea of connecting Philadelphia's Center City to Fairmount Park
- Fairmount Park Art Association created 1872; parkway plan developed by Horace Trumbauer, Clarence Zantzinger and Paul P. Cret (1907); association encourages sculptures in green spaces
- Jacques Greber creates parkway design (1917); includes two linear roads starting at City Hall, ending at Fairmount Park (1.1 mile long); parkway alignment requires removing 1,300 buildings
- Logan Square, named after statesman John Logan, converted into a circle in 1924; circle exists within the same bounds as the square; Swann Memorial Fountain added same year
- Fairmount Parkway complete 1926; name changed to Benjamin Franklin Parkway (1937)
- Southeastern part of Eakins Oval is part of parkway until 1960 when reconfigured as parking lot
- Philadelphia's Deputy City Representative's Office displays flags from 90 different countries along parkway (1976); flags represent countries with significant populations in Philadelphia
- City adopts new design standards for the parkway (2006)
- Streetscape upgrades, improvements to traffic patterns, re-paving, new landscaping, tree plantings being implemented 2010-2015
Cultural, Educational Institutions
- The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University (1900 Benjamin Franklin Pkwy) designed by James Hamilton Windrim (1812); oldest natural science research institution in U.S.
- Friends Select School (1651 Benjamin Franklin Pkwy); one of country's oldest Quaker schools (founded 1833, moved to current location in 1885)
- The Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul (1723 Race St); designed in Italian Renaissance style with vaulted dome (1864); eight side chapels and sanctuary can seat 2,000
- Free Library of Philadelphia (1901 Vine St) opens its doors on north side of Logan Circle (1927); designed by Julian F. Abele, first African American graduate of Penn Architecture School
- The Philadelphia Museum of Art (2600 Benjamin Franklin Pkwy) opens 1928; located on 10 acres at north end of parkway in Fairmount Park; museum designed in Greek Revival style
- The Rodin Museum (2154 Benjamin Franklin Pkwy), designed by Paul Cret and Jacques Greber (1929); building designed in Beaux-Arts style; by entrance is "The Thinker" statue
- Franklin Institute (222 N 20th St) opens 1934; designed in the Classical Revival style
Sculptures, Public Art
- JFK Plaza (Love Park) constructed as parkway's eastern terminus (1965); park contains a single spout fountain and the "Love" sculpture by Robert Indiana (1976)
- The Monument to Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus) located next to Cathedral of Peter and Paul; monument created in 1972 to celebrate 500th anniversary of Kopernik's birth
- Swann Memorial Fountain, designed by Alexander Stirling Calder (1924), located in center of Logan Circle; swimming in fountain is long-standing Philadelphia tradition
- Bronze and granite Washington Monument in Eakins Oval designed by Rudolf Siemering (1897)
- The Sculpture of the Martyrs designed by Natan Rapoport in memory of the six million Jewish martyrs who died during Holocaust; memorial depicts victims being destroyed by fire (1964)
- The Thaddeus Kosciuszko Statue, located near Logan Circle, was designed by Marian Konieczny and dedicated 1979
- Mark DiSuvero's monumental steel-beam sculpture Iroquois added to Parkway in 2007
Monumental, grand, and expansive, Benjamin Franklin Parkway has changed the face of Philadelphia. Since it was conceived in 1871, the parkway has been an urban planning and architectural triumph, providing Philadelphia with one of the country's most iconic and acclaimed thoroughfares. Today, the parkway has evolved into an economic, educational, and cultural treasure, annually drawing more than 3 million visitors.
The Strand (Avenue B)
Five blocks between 20th Street and 25th Street (also called Rosenberg Street), including Shearn Moody Plaza (west side of 25th Street).
Despite yellow fever, civil war, economic decline, and disastrous hurricanes, Galveston, Texas, residents and leaders have persevered and used misfortune as an opportunity for historic preservation, rebuilding, and new development along The Strand.
The Strand's booming economy — generating some $38 million (today's dollars) in merchandise and services in 1881 — came to an abrupt and tragic end with the Great Hurricane of 1900 that killed 6,000 on Galveston Island. The buildings were heavily damaged, but intact and were used immediately after the storm for meeting places and morgues. After a brief period of mourning, residents demonstrated their resolve and began to rebuild.
"The Galveston Central Business District: A Comprehensive Plan Report," completed in July 1964, provided a blueprint for The Strand's next period of growth and development. Followed by an action plan in 1975, the result was a decades-long period of public- and privately funded revitalization and reinvestment along the street. Leading that effort were the Galveston Historical Foundation and philanthropists George and Cynthia Mitchell.
The Strand's return from its most recent devastating loss, caused by Hurricane Ike in 2008, involved community leaders, residents, and planners mapping out strategies and a rehabilitation plan using some $500 million in state and federal recovery funds. During the past five years, The Strand has once more shown its resilience with the iconic facades of the avenue's historic buildings repaired and the street's restaurants, museums, specialty stores, and other businesses on the rebound.
- Hendley Buildings, 2002-2016 Strand, (1859), are oldest brick commercial buildings along The Strand; were used as a lookout during the Battle of Galveston
- Rosenberg Building, 2001-2011 Strand, (1876), interior uses cast iron supports; built by philanthropist Henry Rosenberg as investment property
- W.L. Moody Building, 2202-2206 Strand, (1883); multicolored brick tile and cast-iron facade; design by N.J. Clayton who also did Ball, Hutchings & Company at 2301-2311 Strand (1882)
- T.J. League Building, 2301-2307 Strand, (1872); sidewalk-level storefronts; cast iron and glass fabricated by Southern Ornamental Works of New Orleans
- Greenleve, Block & Company, 2301-2311 Strand, (1882); designed by N.J. Clayton with cast iron facade featuring oval and quatrefoil cutouts
- Freestanding First National Bank Building (now Galveston Arts Center), 2127 Strand, (1878) with cast iron Corinthian columns; was Texas's oldest chartered bank
- First plan specifically addressing The Strand is "Galveston Central Business District: A Comprehensive Plan Report" (July 1964)
- Ford, Powell & Carson produced two plans during the 1970s: "The Strand: Restoration and Revitalization" and "The Galveston Connection"
- These plans provide basis for "Galveston Downtown Streetscape"plan (1988), which focuses on platting, pavement, lighting
- Venturi and Raunch architects and planners develop "Action Plan for the Strand" (1975); identifies goals used to guide the avenue's revitalization during next several decades
- The Strand was designated as a Local Historic District (1989)
- Streetscape improvements made during 2000s including new brick sidewalks, benches, bicycle racks, waste receptacles, light standards
- The Historic Downtown Strand/Seaport Partnership sponsor a master planning process focusing on physical improvements and economic development (2010)
- City Landmark Commission reviews, updates "Design Standards for Historic Properties"(2012)
Community Participation, Amenities, Events
- Galveston Historical Foundation incorporated 1954; focuses efforts on redevelopment of The Strand through use of revolving fund to purchase, rehab, resell historic buildings
- Historic Downtown Strand/Seaport Partnership established 1984 to promote, enhance, sustain economic vitality, physical attractiveness, quality of life throughout historic district
- Since 1972, Mitchell Historic Properties purchased and rehabilitated more than 30 properties in downtown Galveston, many on The Strand
- About 5 million tourists visit Galveston annually
- "Dickens on The Strand" festival supports city's premier National Historic Landmark District; Mardi Gras! Galveston celebration along the avenue dates back to 1867
- Lone Star Rally (October/November); one of largest motorcycle rallies in country (began 2002)
- Saengerfest Park (corner of 23rd and The Strand) known for its large, playable chess set
- Horse and carriage rides offered along The Strand
- George Mitchell died July 26, 2013; revered for his invaluable role throughout Galveston's revitalization and restoration processes
Called the "The Wall Street of the Southwest," The Strand was a highly popular location for major businesses throughout the 19th century, attracting banks, wholesalers, commercial merchants, cotton brokers, newspapers, and attorneys. The buildings, designed by Galveston's leading architects, are exquisite examples of Victorian architecture and represent one of the country's largest collections of cast iron historic commercial buildings.
West Beverley Street
Nine blocks between Coalter and Jefferson Streets.
Throughout much of the 19th century West Beverley Street prospered in its role as Staunton's gateway to the western frontier. But as the city's economy changed and then declined during the 20th century, historic buildings were seen by many as part of the problem, not the solution. That thinking led to the city approving a 1962 proposal to rebuild the Central Avenue business district. The project was contested, but eventually upheld by the Virginia State Supreme Court, leading to the demolition of 32 historic properties near West Beverley Street in 1965.
Although the Central Avenue project was never completed because it did not meet all federal aid requirements, another proposal was made to locate an inner-city highway in the path of more historic buildings. Further motivated, those favoring protection of these and other buildings formed the Historic Staunton Foundation in 1971. One of the foundation's first steps was to inventory and educate residents about the city's Victorian architecture, including the buildings on West Beverley Street.
The foundation also initiated a facade improvement program, recognizing that investment in the repair and upkeep of Staunton's historic buildings would draw tourists visiting the Blue Ridge and Shenandoah mountains. Staunton's city council approved a $600,000 streetscape project in 1981 that included historic lighting fixtures, brick sidewalks and, later, burying power lines. The projects helped attract an additional $1.5 million in further improvements.
Today, Beverley Street continues to draw individuals from all over the country through its museums, restaurants, shops, theaters, and finely restored architecture. New York screenwriter Adam Greenbaum spent months traveling the East Coast looking for a community in which to open a movie theater. He found that town in Staunton, an "amazingly preserved Victorian town" where Greenbaum now operates several movie theaters — including the Art Moderne-styled Dixie Theater on Beverley.
- Staunton's first comprehensive plan was completed in 1959
- Comprehensive Plan 2000 was first plan to contain a downtown section with recommendations for historic preservation and public improvements for Beverley (1981)
- Staunton Downtown Development Association maintains the economic integrity of Beverley; its design committee oversees aesthetics of buildings, signs, and landscaping on the street (1995)
- $2 million for city hall, $1.4 million for city courts complex on West Beverley (1990-1992)
- Corridor Overlay Ordinance and Guidelines implemented (2008); addresses new and renovated structures, signage, lighting, site design along downtown streets
Public, Private Partnerships
- Facade improvement program begun by the Historic Staunton Foundation (1971); more than 250 buildings rehabilitated to date
- Historic District Ordinance and Design Guidelines established for historic district, including Beverley Street; since 1996, $60 million in private investment has been spent on district rehab
- Property values climb 279 percent on average since 1983 due to private property investment; since 2000 alone, more than $50 million is invested on historic tax-credit projects
- Anonymous resident donates $9,000 in 2002 to allow the street to keep hanging flower baskets that had become expensive to maintain
Historic Character, Architecture
- Street is named after English merchant and Staunton founder William Beverley, who established village in 1736; street initially had 10 buildings on some nine blocks in downtown
- Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike (1840s) transformed street into a western frontier gateway
- Beverley Street runs through Newtown, Beverley, and Gospel Hill Historic Districts; it is situated south of the Stuart Addition Historic District and North of the Wharf
- Tallest building on street is Beaux-Arts and Neo-Classical Masonic Building
- National Valley Bank designed by T.J. Collins and modeled after the Roman Arch of Titus is fine example of Beaux-Arts architecture; enormous stained glass skylight illuminates interior
- Trinity Episcopal Church was built in Gothic Revival style, and contains 12 Tiffany stained glass windows; demonstrates decorative brick work
- Dixie Theater redesigned in Art Moderne style by New York architect John Eberson; redesigned in 1981 as a four-plex movie theater in use today
The quintessential mid-19th and early 20th century Victorian charm found in Staunton, Virginia, is at its most charming along West Beverley Street. The street, mostly unscathed by urban renewal and in-town highways that transformed many towns and cities after World War II, has one of the nation's largest collections of the most opulent examples of Victorian architecture.