Enforcement of Land Development Regulations Bibliography

[1]Advisory Committee on Zoning, U.S. Department of Commerce, A Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (Washington, D.C.: U.S. GPO, 1926, rev'd ed.), 13.

[2] Edward Bassett and Frank B. Williams, in Edward Bassett, Frank B. Williams, Alfred Bettman, and Robert Witten, Model Laws for Planning Cities, Counties and States Including Zoning, Subdivision Regulation, and Protection of Official Map (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935), 37.

[3] American Law Institute (ALI), A Model Land Development Code (Washington, D.C.: American Law Institute, 1975).

[4] Id., 448 ( 10-101).

[5] Id., 449 [ 10-102(2)& (3)].

[6] Id., 450-451 ( 10-201).

[7] Id., 452 [ 10-202(2)].

[8] Id., 452 [ 10-202(4)].

[9] Id., 452 [ 10-202(3)].

[10] Id. 453-454 ( 10-203).

[11] Id. 455-456 ( 10-204).

[12] Md. Ann. Code art. 66B, 2.10(a).

[13] Mich. Comp. Laws 125.224 (1997).

[14] Va. Code. Ann. 15.2-2299 (Michie 1997).

[15] Wash. Rev. Code 36.70.670 (1997).

[16] Wis. Stat. 59.97(11) (1997).

[17] Ala. Code 11-52-83 (1997); Colo. Rev. Stat. 31-23-308 (1997); Del. Code tit. 9, 2609 (1997); Iowa Code 414.20 (1996); Md. Ann. Code art. 66B, 2.10(c) (1997); Neb. Rev. Stat. 23-114.05 (1997) N. J. Stat 40:55D-18.

[18] Neb. Rev. Stat. 23-114.05.

[19] Del. Code tit. 9, 2609.

[20] Md. Ann. Code art. 66B, 2.10(b), 7.01(c).

[21] Or. Rev. Stat. 215.185 (1997).

[22] Or. Rev. Stat. 215.190.

[23] Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 24, 4444 (1997).

[24] Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 24, 4445.

[25] Haw. Rev. Stat. 205-13 (1997).

[26] Nev. Rev. Stat. 278.818 (1997).

[27] In their book, Code Enforcement, A Comprehensive Approach (Point Arena, Calif.: Solano Press, 1994), Joseph M. Schilling and James B. Hare refer to the "tough 10 percent" — the fact that voluntary compliance is achieved in about 90 percent of cases, while enforcement agencies expend most of their resources on the remaining 10 percent of cases.

[28] Mullane v. Central Hanover Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306, 314 (1950).

[29] Greene v. Lindsey, 456 U.S. 444 (1982) (pinning notice of eviction to apartment door inadequate).

[30] Morgan v. United States, 304 U.S. 1 (1938).

[31] Fuentes v. Shevin, 407 U.S. 67, 80-81 (1972).

[32] Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254, 269 (1970).

[33] Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254, 271 (1970); Ohio Bell Tel. Co. v. Public Utility Comm'n, 301 U.S. 292 (1937).

[34] That is, the longer they continue, the worse the negative effects become.

[35] Stop-work orders issued automatically, without independent judgment by the hearing officer or board, have been successfully challenged. Martin Jaffe, "A Practical Look at Zoning Enforcement," Land Use Law& Zoning Digest 36, no. 11 (November 1984): 7.

[36] Jaffe 4; Eric Damian Kelly, Enforcing Zoning and Land-Use Controls, Planning Advisory Service Report No. 409 (Chicago: American Planning Association, 1988), 25-26.

[37] Jaffe 5.

[38] Jaffe 3.

[39] Schneckloth v. Bustamonte, 412 U.S. 218 (1973).

[40] Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967).

[41] Air Pollution Variance Bd. v. Western Alfalfa Corp., 416 U.S. 861 (1974)(smoke detected from yard of factory); Horton v. California, 496 U.S. 128 (1990) (discovery of evidence in plain view need not be inadvertent).

[42] New York v. Burger, 482 U.S. 691 (1987) (junkyard).

[43] Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 541 (1967).

[44] United States v. Oliver, 466 U.S. 170 (1984).

[45] Mullane v. Central Hanover Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306, 320 (1950).

[46] Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA), Int'l, BOCA National Building Code 1996 (Country Club Hills, Ill.: BOCA, 1996), 6 (Section 117.0); N.C. Gen. Stat. 160A-421 (1997).

[47] U.S. Const., amend. V.

[48] Opp Cotton Mills v. Administrator, 312 U.S. 126, 152-153 (1941).

[49] Kelly 25.

[50] Kelly 30.

[51] Schilling& Hare 111.


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