LBCS Function Dimension with Descriptions

Function is one of five dimensions in LBCS. Each dimension is an attribute that takes the appropriate four-digit code.


Functions with Descriptions


1000 Residence or accommodation functions #FFFF00

This top-level category comprises all establishments offering residence or accommodation, such as homes, apartments, housing for the elderly, and hotels. Note that leased service departments (e.g. a grocery store in an apartment building) are usually considered separate establishments and should be classified separately in your database. See the detailed function dimension description for information on classifying leased service departments.


Private household

This category comprises all households except those with special provisions, as for the elderly, disabled, or those with subsidized congregate living arrangements. Individually owned residences as well as residences owned by rental or management companies are included. Establishments in this category include apartments, condominiums, mobile homes, townhouses, etc. The vast majority of residential uses fall in this category. Use this category as the default for quickly coding large residential areas.


Housing services for the elderly

Establishments in this category offer a wide range of housing services for those who cannot care for themselves, such as the elderly. These establishments have primarily evolved from two service areas: housing and custodial care. Housing service establishments provide some personal care services; likewise, custodial care establishments provide certain kinds of housing services. The variety of choices available now range from simple services offered in one's house to advanced 24-hour personal care and health services, which are typically common in hospital care services. Many establishments in this category also offer a menu of services to choose from. The subcategories reflect four common patterns of housing for the elderly and relate to the level of the dependence on the care provider.


Retirement housing services

These establishments offer minimal convenience services but focus on attracting elderly residents so as to provide a social support system among the residents.


Congregate living services

Funded through the 1978 Congregate Housing Services Act, many of these establishments serve meals and other services in low-income and federally subsidized housing. Now, many establishments provide such services to other non-subsidized housing facilities. Services include housekeeping, laundry, transportation, recreational programs, and other convenience services.


Assisted-living services

These services are provided by board-and-care establishments, such as adult foster care homes and adult care group homes. Services include daily activity assistance, such as dressing, grooming, bathing, etc. These establishments may be located in single-family homes and share the house with the care provider's family.


Life care or continuing care services

This subcategory comprises church or social welfare organizations running retirement centers. Residents turn over some or all of their assets in exchange for housing, personal care, convenience care, and some health care. Terms used for such establishments are: endowment facilities, founders care facilities, continuing care retirement centers, etc.


Skilled-nursing services

This subcategory comprises establishments that provide 24-hour skilled nursing care. Included are nursing homes and convalescent hospitals for the elderly.


Hotels, motels, or other accommodation services

Establishments in this category serve lodging and short-term accommodations for travelers. They may offer a wide range of services, from overnight sleeping space to full-service hotel suites. They may offer these services in conjunction with other activities, such as entertainment or recreation.


Bed and breakfast inn

These establishments operate primarily in private homes and small buildings.


Rooming and boarding

Rooming and boarding establishments serve a specific group or membership, such as a dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, or workers' camp. They provide temporary accommodations and may offer housekeeping, meals, and laundry services.


Hotel, motel, or tourist court

These establishments comprise resort hotels that do not have gambling services. They may also offer food services, recreational services, convention hosting services, laundry services, etc. This subcategory includes extended stay hotels.


Casino hotel

Casino hotels are establishments that a variety of services packaged to serve gambling, sports betting, slot machines, food services, conference facilities, convention or exhibition services, and recreational amenities like spas, swimming pools, roller coaster rides, amusement parks, etc. In terms of operations, these establishments function like a resort or hotel establishment in addition to the gambling operations in the casino portions of the establishments. Newer marketing strategies for casinos include the provision of full service spa, recreation, and amusement services within the same establishment including art exhibits, music shows, and theater performances.

2000 General sales or services #FF0000

The general sales and services category comprises the vast majority of establishments typically associated with commercial land use. Since this category covers such a wide range of establishments, the subcategories provide the best definition. These are: retail sales and service; automobile sales or service; finance and insurance; business, professional, scientific, and technical services; food services; and personal services. For most applications, the general sales and services category is not specific enough for classifying the economic function of land. However, in cases where specific information is not available, this category may be used as a default for commercial land uses.


Retail sales or service

Retail establishments form the final step in the distribution of merchandise.

They are organized to sell in small quantities to many customers. Many have stores, but some also sell merchandise from non-stores. Establishments in stores operate as fixed point-of-sale locations, which are designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers. Retail establishments often have displays of merchandise and sell to the general public for personal or household consumption, though they may also serve businesses and institutions. Some establishments may further provide after-sales services, such as repair and installation. Examples of store retailers include catalog showrooms, gasoline services stations, and automotive dealers. Subcategories group retail establishments by their industry type.


Automobile sales or service establishment

These establishments include all motor vehicle and parts dealers They may have showrooms or open lots for selling vehicles and may provide repair and maintenance services. Note that establishments selling medium and heavy duty trucks should be included in wholesale trade and not here because such products are never sold through retail channels.


Car dealer

Car dealers retail new or used compact automobiles and light trucks (such as sport utility vehicles, and passenger and cargo vans). These vehicles may be sold in combination with activities, such as repair services, and selling replacement parts and accessories.


Bus, truck, mobile homes, or large vehicles

These establishments retail new or used larger vehicles (not included in car dealers category), such as busses, recreational vehicles (RVs), mobile homes, and trucks. Often these establishments also provide repair services and sell replacement parts and accessories.


Bicycle, motorcycle, ATV, etc.

This class comprises establishments retailing new or used motorcycles, motor scooters, motor bikes, mopeds, and off-road all-terrain vehicles; or, in retailing these vehicles in combination with repair services and selling replacement parts and accessories.


Boat or marine craft dealer

These establishments retail new or used boats, personal watercraft, or new or used outboard motors, boat trailers, and may also provide repair services, sell replacement parts and accessories for such craft, and offer other related equipment supplies.


Parts, accessories, or tires

Primarily comprising of automotive supply stores, these establishments retail new, used, or rebuilt automotive parts and accessories. They may also include repair and installation services. Examples include parts and supply stores, automotive stereo stores, speed shops, truck cap stores, and tires and tube shops.


Gasoline service

Gas stations are establishments that primarily retail automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) which may or may not be in combination with convenience stores or food marts. These establishments may further provide services such as automotive repair, automotive oils, replacement parts and accessories, or food and beverage sales.


Heavy consumer goods sales or service

The next three subcategories (i.e. "heavy", "durable", and "other" consumer goods sales or services), group establishments by their products, and the classes broadly group them by their characteristics. There is no fundamental economic principle in these differences; they reflect traditional planning categories.


Furniture or home furnishings

Retail furnishing establishments sell products, such as household furniture (e.g., baby furniture box springs and mattresses) and outdoor furniture, office furniture (except those sold in combination with office supplies and equipment), floor coverings (rugs, carpets, vinyl floor coverings, and floor tile not only ceramic or wood), and window treatments (curtains, drapes, blinds, and shades). Some of these items may be sold in combination with major appliances or home electronics, or in combination with installation and repair services.


Hardware, home centers, etc.

These establishments primarily retail materials and supplies for home building or repairs. They also sell other products, such as lumber, plumbing goods, electrical goods, tools, house wares, hardware, and, sometimes, lawn and garden supplies.


Lawn and garden supplies

Lawn and garden supply establishments offer specialized products and services for lawn and garden. They come in two variations: a). Some sell new outdoor power equipment which may or may not be accompanied with repair services and replacement parts. b). Others sell nursery and garden products, such as trees, shrubs, plants, seeds, bulbs, and sod, that are predominantly grown elsewhere (these establishments may sell a limited amount of a product they grow themselves).


Department store, warehouse club or superstore

These establishments are unique in that they have the equipment and staff capable of retailing a large variety of goods from a single location. They retail a wide range of products with no one merchandise line predominating. Products may include: apparel, furniture, appliances and home furnishings, paint, hardware, toiletries, cosmetics, photographic equipment, jewelry, toys, and sporting goods. Merchandise lines may be arranged in separate departments. Use this classification for establishments known as warehouse clubs, superstores or super centers retailing a general line of groceries in combination with general merchandise.


Electronics and Appliances

Establishments in the electronics and appliance stores class retail electronics and appliance merchandise from point-of-sale locations. Establishments in this class often operate from locations that have special provisions for floor displays requiring special electrical capacity to accommodate the proper demonstration of these products. The staff may include sales personnel knowledgeable in the characteristics and warranties of the line of goods retailed and may also include trained repairpersons to handle the maintenance and repair of the electronic equipment and appliances.

Products sold at these establishments include household-type appliances, cameras, televisions, stereos, and other electronic goods. These establishments often sell computer hardware and software along with other lines of merchandise; however, establishments primarily selling computer hardware, software, or computer services, are classified in another category below; likewise establishments primarily selling cameras, camera parts, or camera services, are classified in a separate category.


Lumber yard and building materials

Use this classification for lumber yards and heavy building materials retailing establishments. For hardware stores also selling lumber, use the hardware and home centers classification.


Heating and plumbing equipment

Use this classification for heating and plumbing equipment retailers. For hardware stores also selling heating and plumbing equipment, use the hardware and home centers classification. For heating and plumbing contractors that retail and install or service equipment, use the appropriate construction category.


Durable consumer goods sales and service

Establishments in this subcategory retail a wide range of product lines that often include: apparel, appliances and home furnishings, paint, hardware, toiletries, cosmetics, photographic equipment, jewelry, toys, sporting goods, automotive parts, and dry goods. The following classes detail particular lines of merchandise. If no line of merchandise predominates, or, if the line of merchandise is not included in the following classes, use this subcategory code. Examples of such establishments are: department stores, warehouse clubs, superstores or super centers (with the exception of grocery stores).


Computer and software

These establishments retail computers, computer peripherals, and prepackaged computer software without retailing other consumer-type electronic products or office equipment, office furniture and office supplies. Some of these establishments may also retail computer products in combination with repair, support, and training services. This category does not include those establishments that primarily sell computers and software via mail order or the Internet. Such establishments should be classified under the appropriate information services category.


Camera and photographic supplies

Establishments in this category primarily retail cameras, photographic equipment, and photographic supplies, or, they retail these products with repair services and film developing.


Clothing, jewelry, luggage, shoes, etc.

Clothing establishments retail new clothing and clothing accessories merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. These establishments often have similar display equipment and staff that is knowledgeable regarding fashion trends and the proper match of styles, colors, and combinations of clothing and accessories to the characteristics and tastes of the customer. This class includes establishments primarily engaged in retailing clothing, footwear, jewelry, sterling and plated silverware, watches and clocks, luggage and leather goods, and sewing supplies. Also included in this category are establishments retailing these new products in combination with lapidary work and repair services. Note that establishments primarily selling sporting goods are classified separately.


Sporting goods, toy and hobby, and musical instruments

Sporting goods are specialized clothing, equipment, accessories, and service establishments that retail for sport and recreational activities. They retail such goods as bicycles and bicycle parts, camping equipment, exercise and fitness equipment, athletic uniforms, specialty sports footwear, and similar equipment and accessories. Toy and hobby shops primarily retail toys, games, and hobby and craft supplies. Musical instrument establishments retail musical instruments and related supplies; a good example of such an establishment would be a piano store. Some of these establishments may also retail sheet music, offer music instruction, rent or repair instruments, but the primary product is the sale of instruments. Establishments selling sheet music along with books, magazines, etc. should be classified under the appropriate category and not here.


Books, magazines, music, stationery

These establishments retail books, newspapers, magazines (and other periodicals), stationery, school and office supplies, novelty merchandise, souvenirs, greeting cards, seasonal and holiday decorations, curios, sheet music, prerecorded audio and video tapes, compact discs (CDs), and phonograph records.


Consumer goods, other

Establishments in this subcategory retail merchandise (except groceries or health items) not included above. Establishments grouped here are florists, art stores, tobacco stores, and mail order or direct selling establishments.



Florists are establishments that retail cut flowers, floral arrangements, and potted plants purchased from others. These establishments usually prepare the arrangements they sell.


Art dealers, supplies, sales and service

These establishments retail original and limited edition art works, and offer art supplies and services to consumers. Included in this category are establishments displaying works of art for retail sale in art galleries.


Tobacco or tobacconist establishment

This class comprises establishments retailing cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, pipes, and other tobacco supplies.


Mail order or direct selling establishment

Retailing other than in stores is the primary service these establishments provide. These establishments offer services through sales staff that may go to the customers" location (e.g., door-to-door sales, home parties), or may utilize mail or electronic media, such as interactive television or computer. Examples of establishments in this class are home delivery newspaper routes; home delivery of heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas, and other fuels; and establishments retailing from catalogue showrooms of mail-order houses. Vending machine sales are not included in this category.


Antique shops, flea markets, etc.

Antique shops, flea markets, thrift stores, and such establishments that primarily retail a general line of used goods are classified here. A note about classifying used goods: In many economic classifications, used merchandise is classified separately from new merchandise. However, this distinction is becoming irrelevant because many establishments sell both new and used goods. For example, many car dealers sell new and used cars. Establishments selling both new and used merchandise should be classified according to their product groups.


Grocery, food, beverage, dairy, etc.

Establishments in this subcategory usually retail food and beverage merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Establishments have special equipment (e.g., freezers, refrigerated display cases, refrigerators) for displaying food and beverage goods. They have staff trained in the processing of food products to guarantee the proper storage and sanitary conditions required by regulatory authority.


Grocery store, supermarket, or bakery

Supermarkets and other grocery (except convenience) stores retail a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Included in this class are meat and seafood markets, delicatessen-type establishments, and establishments retailing baked goods (not for immediate consumption and made off-premises).


Convenience store

Convenience stores or food marts (except those with fuel pumps) primarily retail a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks. In high traffic or tourism corridors, they also sell gifts, crafts, maps, and other goods normally associated with travel and tourism.


Specialty food store

Specialty food stores primarily retail specialty food items, such as coffee and tea (i.e., packaged), confectionery products (i.e., packaged), nuts, spices, and gourmet foods.


Fruit and vegetable store

These establishments primarily retail fresh fruits and vegetables either as standalone business or part of a larger collection of shops, such as is common with farmers markets, bazaars, and roadside grocery stands.


Beer, wine, and liquor store

These establishments primarily retail packaged alcoholic beverages, such as ale, beer, wine, and liquor.


Health and personal care

This subcategory comprises of establishments that retail health and personal care merchandise from fixed point-of-sale locations. Some of these establishments may have specialized staff trained in dealing with the products, such as pharmacists, opticians, and other professionals that retail, advise, and fit the product for the customer. Establishments in this subcategory are further classified by the products they retail.


Pharmacy or drug store

Pharmacies and drug stores primarily retail prescription or nonprescription drugs and medicines.


Cosmetic and beauty supplies

Establishments in this category primarily retail cosmetics, perfumes, toiletries, and personal grooming products.



Optical establishments retail prescription or nonprescription eyeglasses and contact lenses. This category also includes establishments that provide customer fitting or lens grinding in addition to eyeglasses.


Finance and Insurance

Finance and insurance establishments engage in financial transactions that create, liquidate, or change ownership of financial assets. They also pool financial risks by underwriting insurance and annuities. Some establishments support employee benefit programs. In many cases, it may not be always possible to differentiate some establishments between the subcategories; use this category instead.


Bank, credit union, or savings institution

These establishments primarily perform central banking functions (such as issuing currency, managing national money supply and international reserves, and acting as fiscal agent for the central government) and accept deposits (or share deposits) and lend funds from these deposits.


Credit and finance establishment

Credit and finance establishments, both private and public (government sponsored), extend credit or lend funds raised by credit market borrowing, such as issuing commercial paper or other debt instruments or by borrowing from other financial intermediaries. Credit card, sales financing, unsecured consumer lending, real estate credit, international trade financing, and secondary market financing establishments are also included here.


Investment banking, securities, and brokerages

These establishments primarily engage in one of the following: (1) underwriting securities issues or making markets for securities and commodities; (2) acting as agents (i.e., brokers) between buyers and sellers of securities and commodities; (3) providing securities and commodity exchange services; and (4) providing other services, such as managing portfolios of assets; providing investment advice; and trust, fiduciary, and custody services.


Insurance-related establishment

These primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) underwriting (assuming the risk, assigning premiums, etc.) annuities and insurance policies or (2) facilitating such underwriting by selling insurance policies, and by providing other insurance and employee-benefit related services.


Fund, trust, or other financial establishment

These establishments pool assets, such as funds and trusts, on behalf of shareholders or beneficiaries. They act as principals or brokers in buying or selling financial contracts (except investment banking, securities, and commodity contracts); and provide related investment services, such as portfolio management; investment advice; and trust, fiduciary, and custody services. Security or equity holding establishments are classified in "management of companies and enterprises", not here.


Real estate, and rental and leasing

These establishments rent or lease, and may additionally sell assets. Assets can be tangible (real estate or equipment) or intangible (patents and trademarks). This category's usefulness depends entirely on the activity and structure-type dimensions.


Real estate services

Establishments in this category comprise of those that lease real estate (except buildings), such as manufactured home (i.e., mobile home) sites, vacant lots, and grazing land. It also includes real estate appraisers (which estimate the market value of real estate), and other establishments performing real estate related services while not leasing buildings.


Property management services

This subcategory comprises establishments that manage real property for others. Management includes performing various services associated with overall operation of property, such as collecting rents, and overseeing services such as maintenance, security, and trash removal. Included in this subcategory are owner-lessons and establishments renting real estate and then acting as lessons in subleasing it to others. Establishments may manage the property themselves or have another establishment manage it for them.


Commercial property-related

Commercial property-related establishments lease buildings not used as residences or dwellings. This category includes mini-warehouses and self storage units, which provide space (i.e., rooms, compartments, lockers, containers, or outdoor space) where clients store and retrieve goods.


Rental housing-related

These establishments lease buildings used as residences or dwellings, such as single-family homes, apartment buildings, and town homes.


Rental and leasing

Establishments in the rental and leasing subcategory include establishments that provide tangible goods, such as automobiles, computers, consumer goods, and industrial machinery and equipment, to customers in return for a periodic rental or lease payment. These establishments may rent consumer goods and equipment, or may lease machinery and equipment for business operations. Establishments may or may not operate from a retail or storefront facility, and may offer short or long-term leases. Note the following exceptions. Establishments that primarily lease in combination with providing loans are classified in banks and credit unions. Establishments that primarily lease real property are classified under property management services. Establishments primarily renting or leasing equipment with operators are classified in other subcategories depending on the type of service (these are excluded here since NAICS also differentiates if the client is paying for the expertise of the operator in addition to the rental of the equipment.)



These establishments rent or lease passenger cars without drivers.


Leasing trucks, trailers, RVs, etc.

Establishments in this classification rent or lease trucks, truck tractors or buses, semi trailers, utility trailers, RVs (recreational vehicles), or off-highway transportation equipment such as aircraft, railroad cars, steamships, or tugboats. Drivers or operators are not provided.


Recreational goods rental

These establishments rent recreational goods, such as skis, canoes, bicycles, sailboats, motorcycles, beach chairs, and beach umbrellas.


Leasing commercial, industrial machinery, and equipment

These establishments rent or lease: a). office machinery and equipment, such as computers, office furniture, duplicating machines (i.e., copiers), or facsimile machines; b). heavy equipment without operators used for construction, mining, or forestry, such as bulldozers, earthmoving equipment, well-drilling machinery and equipment, or cranes; c). other non-consumer machinery and equipment, such as manufacturing equipment; metalworking, telecommunications, motion picture, or theatrical equipment; institutional (i.e., public building) furniture; or agricultural equipment without operators.


Consumer goods rental

This category comprises establishments that rent personal and household type goods. Establishments generally provide short-term rental although in some instances, the goods may be leased for longer periods of time. These establishments often operate from a retail-like or store-front facility. Rental items include: home health equipment; consumer electronics equipment, such as televisions, stereos, and refrigerators; clothing, such as formal wear, costumes, (except laundered uniforms and work apparel); furniture; and party supplies. This class also comprises general rental centers, which may offer a range of consumer, commercial, and industrial equipment, but which are primarily geared towards consumers.


Intellectual property rental (video, music, software, etc.)

This class comprises of establishments that assign rights to assets, such as patents, trademarks, brand names, and franchise agreements for which a royalty payment or licensing fee is paid to the asset holder.


Business, professional, scientific, and technical services

Establishments in this category perform professional, scientific, and technical services for others. Such services require a high degree of expertise and training. Subcategories reflect the types of clients and industries they serve.


Professional services

Establishments in this subcategory make available the knowledge and skills of their employees. The distinguishing feature of this subcategory is that the service provided depends on worker skills, while equipment and materials are not of major importance. This distinction is what separates professional services from other categories (such as health care, where ""high tech"" machines and materials are important). Thus, the establishments categorized here sell expertise and perform professional, scientific, and technical services for others. These services require specialized expertise of the employees, though not in every case. The individual classes in this subcategory are defined by the particular expertise and training they provide. The primary distinction between this category and the administrative services category is that employees in this category tend to be more highly specialized.


Legal services

This category includes the following establishments: a). Title abstract and settlement offices engaging in researching public land records to gather information relating to real estate titles, preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement, conducting final real estate settlements and closings, and filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate. (Real estate settlement offices, title abstract companies, and title search companies are included.) b). Offices of lawyers: these are offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys i.e., counselors-at-law primarily engaged in the practice of law; establishments may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law. c). Offices of notaries: these establishments draft, approve, and execute real estate transactions, wills, and contracts; and receive, index, and store such legal documents. d). Other legal services establishments.


Accounting, tax, bookkeeping, payroll services

Accounting-related establishments provide services such as auditing accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, book keeping, and billing.


Architectural, engineering, and related services

These establishments include the following: architectural, landscaping (architectural), engineering, drafting, building inspection, surveying and mapping, and laboratory testing (except medical, veterinary, or auto emission) enterprises. Architectural services plan and design buildings and structures. Architectural landscaping services plan and design the development of land areas for projects. Engineering services apply physical laws and principles of engineering to design, develop, or utilize machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems; they may provide advice, prepare feasibility studies, prepare preliminary and final plans and designs, provide technical services during the construction or installation phase, or inspect and evaluate of engineering projects. Drafting services draw detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications. Building inspection services evaluate aspects of building structure and component systems and prepare a reports on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions; bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included. Surveying and mapping services gather, interpret, and map geophysical and non-geophysical data; these may survey and map the earth's surface or seafloor, may locate and measure subsurface resources (such as oil, gas, and minerals), and may conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Testing laboratories perform physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site.


Graphic, industrial, interior design services

Establishments in this category provide specialized design services (except architectural, engineering, and computer systems design). Services include interior, industrial, and graphic design. Interior design establishments plan, design, and administer projects in interior spaces; interior decorating consultants are also included here. Industrial design establishments create designs and specifications aiding the use, value, and appearance of their products; services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of products. Establishments that provide industrial design services and industrial design consulting services for automobile or furniture industries are also included here. Graphic design establishments design visual communication; they may design printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, or corporate identification (logos); also included are commercial artists that generate illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills.


Consulting services (management, environmental, etc.)

These establishments advise and assist businesses and other organizations on management, scientific, and technological issues. This class includes establishments that provide expertise in information technologies; these may design, modify, test, support, or operate hardware and software for clients.


Research and development services (scientific, etc.)

Establishments in this category conduct research, or analyze, in the physical, engineering, cognitive, or life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, ecology, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, or economics.


Advertising, media, and photography services

Establishments in this category encompass: advertising, public relations, and media buying agencies; media representatives; display and direct mail advertisers; market research and public opinion agencies; commercial and consumer photography and ideography studios; and translation and interpretation providers.


Veterinary services

Veterinary services include establishments with licensed practitioners of veterinary medicine, dentistry, or surgery for animals; also included are establishments that provide testing services for licensed veterinary practitioners.


Administrative services

Typical office establishments in any business or downtown area fall in this category. They provide a variety of standard administrative services. These establishments are typically associated with white-collar workers in the old SIC. These may be independent establishments or part of conglomerates that serve one or more companies. Use this category as a default assignment for most office buildings.


Office and administrative services

These establishments: a). provide day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing, record keeping, personnel employment, and logistics; b). hold securities (or other equity interests) of companies in order to own a controlling interest or influence management decisions; c). oversee and administer the establishments of a company often by providing strategic or organizational planning; and d). provide other administrative services not classified elsewhere.

Only use this classification for stand-alone establishments which, although they may be part of a larger company, are separate from the actual goods or services producing facilities. The activities of these establishments could apply equally to a manufacturing company, a law firm, etc.


Facilities support services

These establishments provide operating staff for support services within a client"s facilities. They typically provide a combination of services, such as janitorial, maintenance, trash disposal, security, mail reception, and laundry services. They provide operating staff to carry out these support activities, but are not involved with the core activities of the client. Establishments providing operation support services (except computer and data processing) and establishments operating correctional facilities (i.e., jails) on a contract or fee basis are also included here.


Employment agency

These establishments provide employee placement, temporary help, and employee leasing services. These: (1) list employment vacancies and refer or place individuals in employment for others; (2) supply workers to clients" businesses for limited periods of time to supplement their working force; and (3) provide human resources and human resource management, and operate in co-employment with clients. These establishments may or may not provide direct supervision of their employees at clients" work sites, but do not have management accountability for the work of their clients with regard to strategic planning, output, or profitability. Professional employer organizations (PEO) and establishments providing labor or staff leasing services are included in this class.


Business support services

These establishments provide any of the following: document preparation, telephone answering, telemarketing, mailing (except direct mail advertising), court reporting, and steno typing. They may operate copy centers, which provide photocopying, duplicating, blueprinting, or other copying services besides printing. They may provide a range of support activities, including mailing services, document copying, facsimiles, word processing, on-site PC rental, and office product sales.


Collection agency

Collection agencies: a). collect payments for claims and remit payments collected to their clients; b). compile credit and employment information (e.g. as credit bureaus) for financial institutions, retailers, or others who need to evaluate credit worthiness; or c). Repossess tangible assets (e.g., automobiles, boats, equipment, planes, furniture, appliances) for a creditor as a result of delinquent debts.


Travel arrangement and reservation services

These establishments promote or sell travel, tour, or accommodation services, such as providing maps and information, locating convention sites, arranging reservations, organizing group tours, etc. Travel or wholesale tour operators are included in this subcategory. Also included are convention and visitors bureaus.


Investigation and security services

Establishments in this subcategory provide one or more of the following: (1) investigation and detective services; (2) guard and patrol services; (3) the picking up and delivering of money or valuable items with protection while in transit; (4) the selling of security systems, such as burglar and fire alarms and locking devices, along with installation, repair, or monitoring; and (5)

remote monitoring of electronic security alarm systems.


Services to buildings and dwellings

These establishments provide services, such as pest control, janitorial activities, landscaping, carpet and upholstery cleaning, and other services for buildings and dwellings.


Extermination and pest control

Establishments that exterminate and control birds, mosquitoes, rodents, termites, and other insects and pests (except for crop production and forestry production) are classified here. Establishments providing fumigation services are also included in this class.



This class comprises establishments that clean building interiors, interiors of transportation equipment (e.g., aircraft, rail cars, ships), or windows.



These establishments provide landscape maintenance, and tree, shrub, plant, lawn, or garden installation. In addition, some of these establishments may design landscape plans or construct (i.e., install) walkways, retaining walls, decks, fences, ponds, or similar structures.


Carpet and upholstery cleaning

This class comprises establishments that clean and dye used rugs, carpets, and upholstery.


Packing, crating, and convention and trade show services

These establishments: a). package client owned materials, possibly with package labeling or imprinting; and b). organize, promote, and manage events, such as business and trade shows, conventions, conferences, and meetings, with or without providing staff.


Food services

Establishments in this category only include those that prepare meals, snacks, and beverages for immediate consumption. Many other establishments also provide similar food and beverage services, but they are not included here because that is not their primary economic function. Use the activity dimension to differentiate such activities in those establishments. For accommodation services (hotels, motels, etc.) use the residential and accommodation services category.


Full-service restaurant

Full-service restaurants provide food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e. waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. They may provide this service in combination with selling alcoholic beverages, providing takeout services, or presenting live nontheatrical entertainment.


Cafeteria or limited service restaurant

These provide food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons order or select items and pay before eating. Food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered to customers" location. Some establishments in this subcategory may provide food services in combination with selling alcoholic beverages. This subcategory includes cafeterias, which use cafeteria-style serving equipment, a refrigerated area, and self-service beverage dispensing equipment, and which display food and drink items in a continuous cafeteria line.


Snack or nonalcoholic bar

These prepare and serve specialty snacks, such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, cookies, or popcorn, or serve nonalcoholic beverages, such as coffee, juices or sodas for consumption on or near the premises. These establishments may carry and sell a combination of snack, nonalcoholic beverage, and other related products (e.g., coffee beans, mugs, and coffee makers) but generally promote and sell a unique food or beverage item.


Bar or drinking place

These establishments, also known as bars, taverns, nightclubs or drinking places, primarily prepare and serve alcoholic beverages for immediate consumption. These establishments may also provide limited food and entertainment (primarily music) services.


Mobile food services

These establishments prepare and serve meals and snacks for immediate consumption from motorized vehicles or non-motorized carts. Examples include hot dog carts and ice cream tucks. The establishment itself is the central location from which the caterer route is serviced, not each vehicle, or cart; however, land used as the primary site for the establishment's sales (i.e. specific locations where the carts or vehicles operate) may be classified here.


Caterer Cafeteria or limited service restaurant

Caterers provide single event-based food services. They transport food via equipment and vehicles to events or prepare food at an off-premise site. Banquet halls with catering staff are included in this subcategory. Examples of events catered by these establishments are trade shows, graduation parties, wedding receptions, and business or retirement luncheons.


Food service contractor

These establishments provide food services at institutional, governmental, commercial, or industrial locations of others based on contracts with organizations for a specified period of time. Establishments in this subcategory provide food services for the convenience of the contracting organization or the contracting organization"s customers. The food service contractor always provides its own management staff.


Vending machine operator

Establishments in this category retail merchandise through vending machines that they service.


Personal services

This is a catch-all category for all personal service establishments. These establishments offer a wide range of personal services (laundry, hair care, etc.). See the establishments page for this classification on the LBCS web site for a complete list of establishments.


Pet and animal sales or service (except veterinary)

This category comprises establishments retailing pets and other animals (except for farming purposes) and pet supplies, as well as establishments providing animal services, such as grooming, training, and care taking. For veterinary establishments, use the appropriate professional services category.


Pet or pet supply store

Establishments in this category retail pets, pet foods, and other pet supplies.


Animal and pet services

These establishments provide animal and pet care services (except veterinary), such as boarding, grooming, sitting, and training.

3000 Manufacturing and wholesale trade #A020F0

Differentiating manufacturing from retail or service establishments can be confusing. The distinctions used in this category closely follow the NAICS definitions. Manufacturing establishments are located in plants, factories, or mills and employ power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment. They may also employ workers who create new products by hand, without the characteristic machinery-intensive enterprise. Many manufacturing establishments process products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, or quarrying as well as products of other manufacturing establishments. The subcategories reflect sectors with distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment, and employee skills. Most manufacturing establishments have some form of captive services (e.g., research and development, and administrative operations, such as accounting, payroll, or management). These must be functionally coded the same as the establishment. However, when such services are provided by separate establishments, they are classified in the appropriate function code, and not in manufacturing. Use the activity dimension to differentiate between an office activity and a factory activity for such establishments.


Food, textiles, and related products

Establishments in this category primarily produce food products for intermediate or final consumption in a process that primarily uses raw materials from livestock or agricultural products. This category also includes establishments that produce tobacco, textiles, and leather products.


Food and beverages

Establishments in the food and beverage subcategory transform livestock and produce into products for intermediate or final consumption; or they manufacture beverages. These products are typically sold to wholesalers or retailers; however, also included here are bakery and candy establishments that produce on the premises for later consumption. Beverage manufacturing includes the manufacture of nonalcoholic and fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages. Ice manufacturing, while not a beverage, is also included because it uses the same production process as water purification.


Tobacco manufacturing establishment

Tobacco manufacturing includes establishments that either: redry and stem tobacco; or that manufacture cigarettes, cigars, or other tobacco products. Tobacco retail sales and tobacco crops are classified separately under retail and agricultural crops categories respectively.



Establishments here include textile mills, textile product mills, and apparel manufacturers. Broadly they can be characterized as those that: (a) transform natural or synthetic fiber into products (such as yarn or fabric) to be further manufactured into textile products; and (2) manufacture textile products (apparel and other) by knitting, cutting, and sewing fabric. Production processes may include preparing and spinning fiber, knitting or weaving fabric, or textile finishing. This category includes establishments that work with materials owned by others and those that manufacture custom garments for individual clients. Tailors and apparel contractors are also included.


Leather and allied products

Leather and allied product manufacturers: a). transform hides into leather by tanning or curing; b). fabricate leather into products for final consumption; and c). manufacture similar products from leather substitutes, such as rubber, plastics, or textiles. Rubber footwear, textile luggage, and plastic purses are some examples of products made from leather substitutes.


Wood, paper, and printing products

Establishments in this category manufacture wood and paper products, such as lumber, furniture, wood building products, mobile homes, and paper products. Some perform related services, such as printing and bookbinding. Subcategories reflect product distinctions.


Wood products establishment

These establishments manufacture wood products (except furniture), such as lumber, plywood, veneers, wood containers, wood flooring, wood trusses, mobile homes, and prefabricated wood buildings. Manufacturing may include sawing, planing, shaping, laminating, or assembling wood products starting from logs or lumber. Included are establishments that make wood products from logs and bolts that are sawed and shaped, and establishments that purchase sawed lumber and make wood products.


Paper and printing materials

Establishments in this category primarily manufacture paper and offer printing-related products. Paper manufacturers make pulp, paper, or converted paper products (e.g. paper bags). Excluded are photosensitive papers, which are classified in chemical and plastics. Printing establishments print products (e.g. newspapers, books, periodicals, and greeting cards) and perform support activities, such as bookbinding, plate making services, and data imaging. Clothing printers are included if their primary activity is printing, not clothing manufacturing (e.g. T-shirt printing is included, but fabric printing is not). For publishers of printed products or those that both print and publish, use the appropriate category under publishing industries or information establishments.


Furniture and related products

These establishments manufacture furniture and related articles, such as mattresses, window blinds, cabinets, fixtures, furniture parts, and frames. Processes include the cutting, bending, molding, laminating, and assembling materials, such as wood, metal, glass, plastics, and rattan. Aesthetic and functional design also plays an important part in the production of furniture. Design services may be performed by the furniture establishment"s work force or may be purchased from industrial designers. Some of the processes used in furniture manufacturing are similar to processes in other manufacturing categories (such as wood manufacturing, metal manufacturing, and plastics manufacturing). However, furniture manufacturing is distinguished as a separate category due to the combination of multiple production processes. For manufacturers of transportation equipment seats and furniture, use the transportation manufacturing category. For manufacturers of medical-type furniture, use the miscellaneous manufacturing category.


Chemicals, and metals, machinery, and electronics manufacturing

Establishments in this category transform or refine chemicals or metals, and manufacture products from chemicals or metals. Subcategories group them by the production processes; the result being that establishments working with base materials (such as iron ore) are classified by the input material, while establishments creating more finished products (such as machinery) are classified by the finished product. For establishments which engage in transformation or refinement, but which primarily extract materials from the earth, use the mining and extraction category instead.


Petroleum and coal products

These establishments manufacture petroleum and coal products by transforming crude petroleum and coal into usable products. The dominant process is petroleum refinement: the separation of crude petroleum into component products through techniques such as cracking and distillation. This category also includes establishments that further process refined petroleum and coal products to produce asphalt coatings, petroleum lubricating oils, and other related byproducts. For establishments that manufacture petrochemicals from refined petroleum are classified under Chemicals, plastics, and rubber products.


Chemicals, plastics, and rubber products

Chemicals, plastics, and rubber establishments process and transform organic and inorganic raw materials, plastics and rubber, and form products by chemical processes. However, for classifying processing during mining operation, use the appropriate mining and extraction category; for the refining of crude petroleum, use Petroleum and coal products; for manufacturing aluminum oxide, use Primary metals manufacturing category; and for beverage distilleries, use Food and beverage category.


Nonmetallic mineral products

Establishments in this subcategory transform, mine, and quarry nonmetallic minerals, such as sand, gravel, stone, clay, and refractory materials. Included are establishments that manufacture bricks, refractories, ceramics, glass, cement, concrete, lime, gypsum, abrasives, ceramic plumbing fixtures, statuary, cut stone products, and mineral wool. Processes used include grinding, mixing, cutting, shaping, and honing. Mining, beneficiating, and manufacturing often occur at a single location. Establishments that mine, quarry, or beneficiate, and then further process, are classified by their primary activity. For example, a mine that manufactures a more-finished product is classified here, while a mine that mines and beneficates with little manufacturing of finished products, is classified under Mining.


Primary metal manufacturing

These establishments smelt or refine metals, and transform metal into products (other than machinery, electronics, computers, or furniture). Establishments include those that manufacture alloys beginning with ore or concentrate, and those that recover metals from scrap or dross through secondary smelting and refining. Establishments may manufacture basic metal products, such as ingot, billet, sheets, strips, bars, rods, wires, and castings; or they may manufacture finished products. Also included are establishments that begin with manufactured metal shapes and further fabricate the shapes into a product. Processes include forging, stamping, bending, forming, machining, rolling, drawing, extruding, welding, and assembling. For establishments that operate coke ovens, use the petroleum and coal products category.


Machinery manufacturing

Establishments in this subcategory create products that apply mechanical force (e.g. the application of gears and levers) to perform work. Important processes include forging, stamping, bending, forming, machining, welding, and assembling. Design considerations are inherent in the production; these considerations help separate machinery manufacturing from "primary metal manufacturing." Establishments make machinery for particular applications, such as agriculture, construction, mining, ventilation, industrial/commercial heating and cooling, and metalworking. Establishments manufacturing electrical products, including motors and generators, are classified elsewhere, in "electrical equipment, appliances, and components". Manufacturers of household appliances, including heaters, refrigerators, and air conditioners, are also included in "electrical equipment, appliances, and components".


Electrical equipment, appliance, and components manufacturing

These establishments manufacture computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, audio equipment, lighting equipment, batteries, motors, and other products that generate, distribute and use electrical power. Included are manufactures of components for the above products and manufacturers of small and major household appliances.


Transportation equipment, automobiles, etc.

Establishments in this subcategory produce equipment for transporting people and goods. Although transportation equipment is a type of machinery, assembly tends to be distinct from the production processes common in the machinery manufacturing, so these establishments are classified separately. Manufacturers of motor vehicle equipment used for non-transporting purposes (e.g., agriculture, construction, or materials handling) are classified elsewhere according the type and use of the equipment.


Miscellaneous manufacturing

Use this category for manufacturing establishments not classified elsewhere. The subcategories reflect common establishment types which do not have special categories in other manufacturing types.


Jewelry and silverware

precious metal, pewter cutlery and flatware, or personal metal goods (i.e., small articles carried on or about the person, such as compacts or cigarette cases); (2) stamp coins; (3) manufacture unassembled jewelry parts or stock shop products, such as sheet, wire, and tubing; (4) cut, slab, tumble, carve, engrave, polish, or facet precious or semiprecious stones and gems; (5) recur, repolish, or set gem stones; or (6) drill, saw, or peel cultured and costume pearls.


Dolls, toys, games, and musical instruments

These establishments manufacture games (including electronic), toys, dolls, and musical instruments.


Office supplies, inks, etc.

Office supply manufacturing establishments manufacture office supplies with the exception of paper. Examples of products made by these establishments are pens, pencils, felt tip markers, crayons, chalk, pencil sharpeners, staplers, hand operated stamps, modeling clay, and inked



Sign manufacturing establishments manufacture signs and related displays of all materials except printing paper or paperboard.


Wholesale trade establishment

Wholesaling is an intermediate step in the distribution of merchandise. Wholesalers either sell or arrange the purchase of goods to other businesses and normally operate from a warehouse or office. They may be located in an office building or a warehouse. Unlike retailers, their warehouses and offices have little or no display of merchandise. Functional coding should reflect the type of economic establishment. Whether the establishment is in a warehouse or an office building is specified by a combination of activity and structure-type dimensions. Subcategories provided under wholesale trade may be arbitrary. They are included here to accommodate older data sets that maintained such distinctions.


Durable goods

Establishments in the durable goods subcategory sell or arrange the purchase or sale of capital or durable goods to other businesses. These establishments wholesale products, such as motor vehicles, furniture, construction materials, machinery and equipment (including household-type appliances), metals and minerals (except petroleum), sporting goods, toys and hobby goods, recyclable materials, and parts. Durable goods generally have life expectancy of at least three years.


Nondurable goods

Establishments in the nondurable goods subcategory sell or arrange the purchase or sale of nondurable goods to other businesses. These establishments wholesale products, such as paper products, chemicals, drugs, textiles, apparel, footwear, groceries, farm products, petroleum products, alcoholic beverages, books, magazines, newspapers, flowers, and tobacco products. Nondurable goods generally have a life expectancy of less than three years.


Warehouse and storage services

These service establishments operate warehouse and storage facilities for general merchandise, refrigerated goods, and other warehouse products. They provide the facilities to store goods but do not sell the goods they handle. They may also provide a range of services related to the distribution of goods, such as labeling, breaking bulk, inventory control and management, light assembly, order entry and fulfillment, packaging, pick and pack, price marking and ticketing, and transportation arrangement. Bonded warehousing, storage services, and warehouses located in free trade zones are included in this category.

4000 Transportation, communication, information, and utilities #BEBEBE

This is a catch-all category comprising transportation, communication, and utilities for essential facilities. In this category, an establishment cannot be distinguished by a single physical location as it can in most other categories. To classify land in this category, other factors are needed for deciding which land serves a particular establishment. In most cases, the type of establishment in this category is easily deduced from the type of structures and actives on the land. The remaining difficulty is deciding how significant a structure or activity is necessary for the land to be associated with an establishment type. For example, it would not be realistic to classify all land with telephone lines under telephone communications; however, land with more important telephone communication facilities may be classified here.


Transportation services

Transportation establishments serve passengers and cargo movements and are grouped by the modes of transportation. They use transportation equipment as a productive asset although many may have service and repair facilities (railroads or airlines).


Air transportation

Establishments in the air transportation subcategory provide air transportation for passengers or cargo using aircraft, such as airplanes and helicopters. This subcategory includes scenic and sightseeing air transportation establishments, which may involve local departure and same-day return. Air courier services (individual package or cargo delivery) are not included in this subsection but are included in 4190, since these services usually require road transportation to deliver the cargo to the intended recipient.


Air passenger transportation

This class comprises establishments providing scheduled and nonscheduled air transportation for passengers or passengers with freight.


Air freight transportation

This class encompasses establishments providing scheduled and nonscheduled air transportation of cargo without transporting passengers. Establishments primarily providing scheduled air transportation of mail on a contract basis are included in this class.


Airport and support establishment

These include: establishments providing air traffic control to regulate the flow of air traffic; establishments that operate international, national, or civil airports or public flying fields, or, that support airport operations (such as rental of hangar spaces, and cargo handling services); and establishments providing specialty air transportation or flying services (not included in air freight or passenger transportation).


Aircraft and accessories

This class comprises establishments that provide specialized services for air transportation (except air traffic control and other airport operations). Examples of services include aircraft maintenance and repair (except factory conversions, overhauls, rebuilding), and aircraft testing.


Other air transportation (including scenic, balloon, etc.)

Use this classification for specialized air transportation. Most of these establishments operate for scenic or sightseeing purposes. Examples of transportation types include: hot air balloon rides, helicopter rides, and aerial tram and cable cars.


Rail transportation

The rail transportation category comprises establishments providing passenger and freight transportation, and rail transportation support. Use this general category for establishments providing both passenger and freight transportation, or, for establishments providing both rail transportation and rail support services; otherwise, choose the more specific classification. Many rail facilities serve multiple establishments with different functions; for example, one establishment may provide passenger transportation, and a separate establishment may provide freight transportation on the same rail. In these cases, apply separate specific codes for each type of establishment.


Rail passenger transportation

Use this classification for rail transportation establishments for passengers only (no freight). Establishments in this classification operate over long distances between metropolitan areas, although some may provide additional local transportation. For systems within local areas only, use the appropriate local transit system classification.


Rail freight transportation

Use this classification for rail freight transportation systems only (no passengers). Rail freight establishments may operate over long distances, or

within local areas only.


Rail transportation support establishment

These establishments provide specialized services for railroad transportation. They service, repair (except through factory conversion, overhauling or rebuilding rolling stock), maintain, load, and unload rail cars; and operating independent terminals.


Road, ground passenger, and transit transportation

The road, ground passenger, and transit transportation category comprises a variety of passenger transportation functions, such as urban transit systems; chartered, school, and interurban bus transportation; and taxis. Establishment types primarily reflect the mode of transit utilized.


Local transit systems — mixed mode

These establishments operate ground passenger transit systems using multiple modes of transport over regular routes and on regular schedules within a local or metropolitan area. For these systems, use the other LBCS dimensions to classify the specific characteristics of each site (i.e. rail versus bus). For systems involving only one mode of transportation, use one of the more specific classifications.


Local transit systems — commuter rail

Commuter rail establishments operate commuter rail systems over regular routes and on a regular schedule within a local area. Commuter rail is usually characterized by reduced fares, multiple ride, and commutation tickets and is mostly used by passengers during the morning and evening peak periods.


Local transit systems — bus, special needs, and other motor vehicles

Use this classification for all single-mode local transit systems other than rail. Included are shuttle services and special needs transportation for the elderly, infirm, or handicapped. This classification may include scheduled and non-scheduled transit systems.


Interurban, charter bus, and other similar establishments

These establishments operate non-local passenger buses or other motor vehicles. They may operate over regular routes and schedules, for charter (i.e. without regular routes and schedules), or for special needs transportation (not provided by school or work) for the infirm, elderly, or handicapped.


School and employee bus transportation

These transportation establishments provide buses and other motor vehicles to transport pupils to and from school or employees to and from work.


Special purpose transit transportation (including scenic, sightseeing, etc.)

Use this classification for scenic or sightseeing land transportation. These establishments are classified separately because: (1) many do not offer transit between destination points (i.e. the destination is the same as the starting point); (2) they may operate both within local areas and over larger areas; (3) they may operate either mixed or single mode transit systems; and (4) they offer other services, such as tour guide services. It may be impossible to separate scenic and sightseeing transportation from certain transit systems. For commuter transit systems which also provide scenic or sightseeing services, use the appropriate local transit classification.


Taxi and limousine service

These establishments provide passenger transportation by automobile or van, not over regular routes or regular schedules. Taxicab owner/operators, taxicab fleet operators, and taxicab organizations are included. Also included are limousine and luxury sedan establishments, which may provide an array of specialty and luxury passenger transportation services


Towing and other road and ground services

This class comprises establishments that tow light or heavy motor vehicles, both local and long distance. These establishments may provide incidental services, such as storage and emergency road repair services.


Truck and freight transportation services

Establishments in the truck and freight transportation category provide over-the-road transportation of cargo using motor vehicles, such as trucks and tractor trailers. The category is subdivided into general freight trucking and specialized freight trucking. This distinction reflects differences in equipment, type of load, scheduling, terminal, and other networking services. General freight transportation establishments handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized, and transported in a container or van trailer. General freight trucking is further subdivided into local and long distance trucking. Specialized freight transportation requires specialized equipment due to the size, weight, shape, or other inherent characteristics of the cargo. Specialized freight trucking is further subdivided into used and non-used freight trucking.


General freight trucking, local

These establishments provide local general freight trucking, usually within a metropolitan area which may cross state lines. They handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Most trips are same-day return.


General freight trucking, long-distance

Long distance freight trucking establishments provide long-distance general freight trucking, usually between metropolitan areas which may cross North American country borders. They handle a wide variety of commodities, generally palletized and transported in a container or van trailer. Included are establishments operating as truckload (TL) or less than truckload (LTL) carriers.


Freight trucking, specialized (used household and office goods)

These establishments provide specialized local or long-distance trucking of used household, used institutional, or used commercial furniture and equipment. They use specialized equipment, such as flatbeds, tankers, or refrigerated trailers. Incidental packing and storage activities are often provided.


Freight trucking, specialized (except used goods)

These establishments provide local or long-distance trucking of non-used goods using specialized equipment, such as flatbeds, tankers, or refrigerated trailers.


Marine and water transportation

Marine and water transportation establishments provide transportation of passengers and cargo using watercraft, such as ships, barges, and boats. They provide deep sea, coastal, Great Lakes, or inland waterway transportation.


Marine passenger transportation

Establishments in this class provide water transportation, including scenic and sightseeing, for passengers.


Marine freight transportation

Establishments in this class provide water transportation for cargo.


Marine port and harbor operations

Establishments in this class operate ports, harbors (including docking and pier facilities), or canals.


Marine cargo handling and dry dock services

These establishments provide stevedoring and other marine cargo handling services (except warehousing).


Marine navigational and other services

These establishments arrange the transportation of freight between shippers and carriers, and provide navigational and other shipping services not included in other classes. These establishments include freight forwarders, marine shipping agents, customs brokers, and marine salvage establishments.


Courier and messenger services

Courier and messenger services are establishments that provide air, surface, or combined courier delivery services of parcels and messages within or between metropolitan areas or urban centers. These establishments may form a network including local, and point-to point pick up and delivery.


Postal services

These establishments operate the national postal service. Establishments that perform one or more postal services, such as sorting, routing, and delivery on a contract basis (except the bulk transportation of mail), are included in this subcategory.


Pipeline transportation

Establishments in pipeline transportation use transmission pipelines to transport products, such as crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and slurry. The transportation of natural gas includes the storage of natural gas because the storage is usually done by the pipeline establishment and a pipeline is an inherent network in which all the nodes are interdependent.


Communications and information

These establishments produce or distribute information. Information can be broadly differentiated by the medium through which it flows. Every other industry sector is in some way or another either a producer or consumer of "information" — alluded to terms like "information economy" and "global economy." However, the establishments in this category pertain to those that transform information into a commodity. The subcategories correspond to the NAICS information industry sector. Unless planning functions need finer distinctions, the subcategories at the three-digit level should serve most applications. Differentiating a newspaper printing press (which may operate like an industrial use) from a software publishing enterprise (which may be like an office use) can be accomplished by assigning appropriate codes from the structure-type and activity dimensions.



Publishing establishments issue copies of works for which they usually possess copyright. Works may be in one or more formats including traditional print form, CD-ROM, or on-line. Publishers may publish works originally created by others for which they have obtained the rights or works that they have created in-house. Software publishing is included here because the creation process is similar to other types of intellectual products. For music publishers, use the motion picture and sound recording category. For the reproduction of prepackaged software, use the appropriate manufacturing classification; for custom design of software to client specifications, use the appropriate business, professional, scientific, and technical services classification.


Newspapers, books, periodicals, etc.

This classification comprises establishments that publish newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, books, databases, calendars, greeting cards, maps, and similar works. These works are usually protected by copyright, and may be published in one or more formats, such as print or electronic form, including on-line. Publishers may print, reproduce, distribute, or offer direct access to the works, or may arrange others to carry out such functions. For printing establishments which do not publish, use the paper and printing


Software publisher

This classification comprises establishments that publish newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, books, databases, calendars, greeting cards, maps, and similar works. These works are usually protected by copyright, and may be published in one or more formats, such as print or electronic form, including on-line. Publishers may print, reproduce, distribute, or offer direct access to the works, or may arrange others to carry out such functions. For printing establishments which do not publish, use the paper and printing


Motion pictures and sound recording

Motion picture and sound recording establishments produce and distribute motion pictures and sound recordings. Although these establishments issue works for sale as traditional publishers do, the processes are sufficiently different to warrant a separate category. Production is typically a complex process that involving distinct types activities, such as contracting with performers, creating the film or sound content, and providing technical postproduction services. Film is often distributed to exhibitors, such as theaters and broadcasters, rather than through the wholesale and retail distribution chain. This category does not include establishments wholesaling video cassettes and sound recordings; these establishments are included in the wholesale trade sector. For establishments only reproducing video cassettes or sound recordings, use the appropriate manufacturing classification.


Motion Picture and video production, publishing, and distribution

This classification comprises establishments that produce or distribute motion pictures, videos, television programs, or commercials.


Motion picture viewing and exhibition services

Establishments in this class operate movie theaters, drive-ins, film festival exhibitions, etc., for the display of motion pictures or videos.


Sound recording, production, publishing, and distribution

This classification comprises establishments that produce, distribute, or publish music and musical recordings, or provide sound recording and related services.


Telecommunications and broadcasting

The telecommunications and broadcasting category comprises establishments that provide point-to-point communications and related services. The classification groups are based on differences in the methods of communication and in the nature of services provided. Many establishments operate facilities providing an array of telecommunications services. If multiple services are shared between the same facilities, use this general category. If separate facilities are maintained for each type of service, then use a separate specific classification below for each facility type. For independent contractors that maintain and install broadcasting and telecommunications systems, use the appropriate classification in the construction-related category.


Radio and television broadcasting

The radio and television broadcasting classification includes establishments that operate broadcasting studios and facilities for over the air or satellite delivery of radio and television programs of entertainment, news, talk, etc. These establishments produce or purchase programs and generate revenue from the sale of air time to advertisers or from donations, subsidies, or the sale of programs.


Cable networks and distribution

This class includes two types of establishments. Cable networks operate studios and facilities for the broadcasting of programs that are typically narrowcast in nature (limited format, such as news, sports, education, and youth-oriented programming). The services of these establishments are typically sold on a subscription or fee basis. Delivery of cable programs to customers is handled by distribution establishments that operate cable systems, direct-to-home satellite systems, or other similar systems.


Wireless telecommunications

Telecommunications establishments operate, maintain, or provide access to facilities for the transmission of voice, data, text, sound, or full motion picture video between network termination points. A transmission facility may be based on a single technology or a combination of technologies. Use this classification for wireless telecommunications only.


Telephone and other wired telecommunications

Use this classification for telecommunications establishments operating telephone networks.


Information services and data processing industries

This subcategory consists of news syndicates, and information and data processing services. These may supply information to the news media, or provide electronic data processing services. These establishments may provide complete processing and preparation of reports from data supplied by customers; specialized services, such as automated data entry services; or may make data processing resources available to clients on an hourly or timesharing basis.


Online information services

This comprises Internet access providers, Internet service providers, and similar establishments providing direct access through telecommunications networks to computer-held information compiled or published by others.


Libraries and archives

This consists of establishments providing library or archive services. These establishments are engaged in maintaining collections of documents (e.g., books, journals, newspapers, and music) and facilitating the use of such documents (recorded information regardless of its physical form and characteristics) as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, or recreational needs of their user. These establishments may also acquire, research, store, preserve, and generally make accessible to the public historical documents, photographs, maps, audio material, audiovisual material, and other archival material of historical interest. All or portions of these collections may be accessible electronically.


News syndicate

This class comprises establishments supplying information, such as news reports, articles, pictures, and features, to the news media.


Utilities and utility services

This category comprises establishments that provide utility services, such as electric power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply, and sewage removal. Not included are waste management services, which collect, treat, and dispose of waste materials, and do not directly use or operate utilities.


Electric power

Electric power establishments provide electric power generation (except hydroelectric, fossil fuel, nuclear), transmission, control, and distribution. Establishments include facilities that convert other forms of energy (such as solar, wind, or tidal power) into electrical energy, electric power transmission and control systems (including lines and transformer stations), and distribution systems (i.e., lines, poles, meters, and wiring). Also included are establishments that arrange the sale of electricity via power distribution systems operated by others.



This comprises establishments operating hydroelectric power generation facilities. These facilities use waterpower to drive a turbine and produce electric energy. Electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.



This comprises establishments operating fossil fuel electric power generation facilities. These facilities use fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, or gas, in internal combustion or combustion turbine conventional steam process to produce electric energy. Electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.



This comprises establishments operating nuclear electric power generation facilities. These facilities use nuclear power to produce electric energy. Electric energy produced in these establishments is provided to electric power transmission systems or to electric power distribution systems.


Alternative energy sources

Establishments in this class offer alternative energy (e.g., solar or wind) production and distribution. However, for establishments that manufacture, install, or repair equipment used for wind and solar energy, use the appropriate manufacturing category.


Natural gas, petroleum, fuels, etc.

This encompasses: (1) establishments operating gas distribution systems (e.g., mains, meters); (2) gas marketers that buy gas from the well and sell it to a distribution system; (3) gas brokers or agents that arrange the sale of gas over gas distribution systems operated by others; and (4) establishments that transmit and distribute gas to final consumers.


Water, steam, air conditioning supply

This subcategory comprises public and private utility establishments that offer drinking water, water treatment, water supply, irrigation, steam supply, or hot or cool air supply.


Drinking water

Use this classification for establishments operating water treatment plants, filtration plants, pumping stations, and similar facilities for drinking water only.


Irrigation and industrial water supply

This class consists of establishments operating water treatment plants and establishments operating water supply systems for irrigation and industrial supply only. The water supply system may include pumping stations, aqueducts, or distribution mains.


Air conditioning and steam supply

This class consists of establishments providing steam, heated air, or cooled air. Steam distribution may be through mains.


Sewer, solid waste, and related services

Establishments in this subcategory collect, treat, and dispose of waste materials. Establishments locally haul waste materials; operate materials recovery facilities (i.e., sort recyclable materials from trash); provide remediation services (i.e., the cleanup of contaminated sites); operate sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities; or provide septic pumping or other miscellaneous waste management services. Establishments that primarily haul waste over long distances are classified in the transportation category.


Hazardous waste collection

This class comprises establishments that (1) operate treatment and disposal facilities for hazardous waste; and (2) combine, collect, or haul hazardous waste materials within a local area while operating treatment or disposal facilities.


Hazardous waste treatment and disposal

This class comprises establishments that (1) remediate and clean contaminated buildings, mine sites, soil, or ground water; (2) provide mine reclamation activities, including demolition, soil remediation, waste water treatment, hazardous material removal, contouring land, and revegetation; and (3) asbestos, lead paint, and other toxic material abatement.


Solid waste collection

This class comprises establishments that (1) collect or haul hazardous waste, nonhazardous waste, or recyclable materials within a local area; and (2) operate hazardous or nonhazardous waste transfer stations. Waste collection establishments may be responsible for the identification, treatment, packaging, and labeling of wastes for the purposes of transport.


Solid waste combustor or incinerator

These operate combustors and incinerators for the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste. These also include other nonhazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities (except landfills, sewer systems, or sewage treatment facilities). Establishments may produce byproducts such as electricity and steam. They may locally collect or haul nonhazardous waste materials along with the operation of facilities. Compost dumps are included in this class. Some establishments use the term resource recovery facility for the sites they manage.


Solid waste landfill

Solid waste landfills operate landfills for the disposal of nonhazardous solid waste. These may locally collect or haul nonhazardous waste materials along with landfill operation. These establishments also manage recycling and resource recovery facilities that operate in conjunction with landfills.


Waste treatment and disposal

This class comprises establishments that (1) operate facilities for separating and sorting recyclable materials from nonhazardous waste streams (i.e., garbage); and (2) operate facilities where commingled recyclable materials, such as paper, plastics, used beverage cans, and metals, are sorted.


Septic tank and related services

This class comprises establishments that (1) pump (i.e., clean) septic tanks and cesspools; (2) rent or service portable toilets; and (3) provide other waste management services (except waste collection, waste treatment and disposal, remediation, operation of materials recovery facilities, and waste management consulting services).

5000 Arts, entertainment, and recreation #90EE90

These establishments operate facilities or provide services for a variety of cultural, entertainment, and recreational functions. Establishments include those that produce, promote, or participate in live performances, events, or exhibits intended for public viewing; those that preserve and exhibit objects and sites of historical, cultural, or educational interest; and those that operate facilities or provide services to serve activities associated with amusement, hobby, and leisure time interests.


Performing arts or supporting establishment

Establishments in this category produce or organize and promote live presentations. The classification recognizes the following basic processes: producing events; organizing, managing, and promoting events; managing and representing entertainers; and providing the artistic, creative and technical skills for the production of these live events. Although nightclubs may offer live entertainment, they are excluded from this category. Use the appropriate food, drink, or recreational category for nightclubs.


Theater, dance, or music establishment

This subcategory comprises establishments producing live presentations by actors and actresses, singers, dancers, musicians, and other performing artists. Establishments include: companies, groups, or theaters that produce theatrical presentations and dance (ballet, musicals, operas, plays, etc.); dinner theaters that produce theatrical productions and provide food and beverage for consumption on the premises; and groups or freelance artists producing live musical entertainment. Theater/dance groups or companies may or may not operate their own theater or other facility for staging their shows. Musical groups and artists may perform in front of a live audience or in a studio, and may or may not operate their own facilities for staging their shows.


Sports team or club

These establishments are professional or semiprofessional sports teams or clubs participating in live sporting events, such as baseball, basketball, football, hockey, soccer, and jai alai games, before a paying audience. These establishments may or may not operate their own facility for presenting these events.


Racetrack establishment

These establishments: operate racetracks for events, such as auto, dog, and horse races; own racing participants, such as cars, dogs, and horses; or are independent racecar drivers.


Promoter of performing arts, sports, and similar events

Establishments in this subcategory organize, promote, and manage live performing arts productions, sports events, and similar events, such as state fairs, county fairs, agricultural fairs, concerts, and festivals. They may operate their own facilities, such as arenas, stadiums, and theaters, or rent from others; or they may operate these facilities for rent to other promoters. Theatrical (except motion picture) booking agencies are included in this subcategory.


Agent for management services

Agents and managers representing and managing creative and performing artists, sports figures, entertainers, and other public figures. The representation and management includes activities, such as representing clients in contract negotiations; managing or organizing client"s financial affairs; and promoting the careers of their clients.


Independent artist, writer, or performer

This industry comprises independent (i.e., freelance) individuals primarily engaged in performing in artistic productions, in creating artistic and cultural works or productions, or in providing technical expertise necessary for these productions. This industry also includes athletes and other celebrities exclusively engaged in endorsing products and making speeches or public appearances for which they receive a fee.


Museums and other special purpose recreational institutions

Museums establishments preserve and exhibit objects, sites, and natural wonders of historical, cultural, or educational value. Included are public and private museums, historical sites, zoos, and similar establishments.



These establishments preserve and exhibit objects of historical, cultural, or educational value.


Historical or archeological institution

These establishments preserve and exhibit sites, buildings, forts, or communities that describe events or persons of particular historical interest. Archeological sites, battlefields, historical ships, and pioneer villages are included in this subcategory.


Zoos, botanical gardens, arboreta, etc.

These establishments preserve and exhibit live plant and animal life displays, including those in natural areas or settings (as in the case of national parks).


Amusement, sports, or recreation establishment

Establishments in this category operate facilities offering activities (i.e. sports, recreation, amusement, or gambling) and provide services, such as facilitating amusement in places operated by others, operating recreational sports groups, and guiding tours (without transportation equipment). The following subcategories highlight particular establishment types. Note that this category does not cover all establishments providing recreational services; many are classified in other categories. For establishments using transportation equipment, such as sightseeing buses, dinner boats, or helicopters, use the appropriate transportation category.


Amusement or theme park establishment

Amusement or theme parks operate a variety of attractions, such as mechanical rides, water rides, games, shows, theme exhibits, refreshment stands, and picnic grounds. These establishments may lease space to others on a concession basis.


Games arcade establishment

These operate arcades and parlors (except gambling, billiard, or pool,) for amusement.


Casino or gambling establishment

These comprise establishments (except casino hotels) that operate gambling facilities, such as casinos, bingo halls, and video gaming terminals, or that provide gambling services, such as lotteries and off-track betting. These establishments may provide food and beverage services. Included in this subcategory are floating casinos (i.e., gambling cruises, and riverboat casinos).


Miniature golf establishment

These establishments operate miniature golf courses, and typically provide the necessary equipment to patrons. These establishments are distinct from golf courses and country clubs.



This subcategory comprises establishments that operate downhill, cross-country, or related skiing areas, and establishments that operating equipment, such as ski lifts and tows. Establishments often provide food and beverage services, equipment rental services, and ski instruction services. Four season resorts without accommodations are included in this subcategory. For establishments operating ski resorts with accommodations use the appropriate residence and accommodation category.


Marina or yachting club facility operators

Marinas operate docking and storage facilities for pleasure craft owners. They may retail fuel and marine supplies, and may repair, maintain, or rent pleasure boats in addition to operating facilities.


Fitness, recreational sports, gym, or athletic club,

These establishments operate fitness and recreational sports facilities, or, provide services for fitness or recreational sports teams, clubs, or individual activities. The facilities-operating establishments to be classified here include: fitness clubs, gyms, archery and shooting ranges, horseback riding establishments, recreational ball parks and courts, and more. Sporting establishments that operate certain types of facilities are classified in other categories. For example, a yacht club operating a marina or docking facility is classified elsewhere (but a yacht club which does not operate such a facility, is classified here). For sporting establishments that operate facilities, first check whether a unique function code applies; if not, use this classification.


Bowling, billiards, pool, etc.

This subcategory comprises establishments operating bowling billiards, or pool centers. These establishments often provide food and beverage services.


Skating rinks, roller skates, etc.

These establishments operate skating rinks; they may further offer skating products and services.


Camps, camping, and related establishments

Some of these establishments operate sites to accommodate campers and their equipment, including tents, tent trailers, travel trailers, and recreational vehicles; others provide overnight recreational camps, such as children"s camps, family vacation camps, hunting and fishing camps, and outdoor adventure retreats that offer trail riding, white-water rafting, hiking, and similar activities. These establishments may provide facilities and services, such as cabins, washrooms, food services, recreational facilities and equipment, and organized recreational activities.


Natural and other recreational parks

Use this classification for all parks without special economic functions. The other LBCS dimensions should be applied to code the type of park. Use the ownership dimension to distinguish between public and private parks, the site dimension to distinguish between community parks and state parks, etc.

6000 Education, public admin., health care, and other inst. #0000FF

This is a catch-all category for grouping a variety of functions, which planning applications normally aggregate.


Educational services

The establishments in this category offer teaching and learning. Educational service may be provided in a variety ways (e.g., through educational institutions, the workplace, television, or home correspondence). Use the other dimensions to identify the precise nature of the land use. For example, the structure dimension can differentiate a school bus garage from a school building, or the ownership dimension can identify private from public schools.


Nursery and preschool


Grade schools

This category comprises all public, private, and specialty schools between the preschool and university level. The individual classifications are based on traditional age and educational level distinctions.










Alternate education services

Use this classification for all schools below the university level offering specialized services, such as for the physically or mentally disabled.


Adult education services


Colleges and Universities

These comprise junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools. These establishments furnish academic or technical courses and grant degrees, certificates, or diplomas at the associate, baccalaureate, or graduate levels. The requirement for admission is at least a high school diploma or equivalent general academic training.


Technical, trade, and other specialty schools

These schools offer vocational and technical training in a variety of technical subjects and trades. The training often leads to job-specific certification. The individual classifications are based on the type of training provided.


Beauty schools

These establishments primarily train in barbering, hair styling, or the cosmetic arts, such as makeup or skin care. These schools provide job-specific certification.


Business management

These establishments offer courses in office procedures, secretarial skills, stenographic, and basic office skills. In addition, these establishments may offer such classes as office machine operation, reception, and communications, designed for individuals pursuing a clerical or secretarial career.


Computer training

These establishments conduct computer training (except computer repair), in computer programming, software packages, computerized business systems, computer electronics technology, computer operations, and local area network management. Instruction may be provided at the establishment"s facilities or at an off-site location.


Driving education

Use this classification for all drivers education establishments, including mandatory public drivers education, truck drivers education, and education for the operation of public transit motor vehicles.


Fine and performing arts education

These establishments offer instruction in the arts, including dance, art, drama, and music.


Flight training

These establishments offer aviation and flight training. They may offer vocational training, recreational training, or both.


Sports and recreation education

Sports and recreational education establishments, such as camps and schools, offer instruction in athletic activities to groups of individuals. Overnight and day sports camps are included in this class. However, if the camp primarily involves camping or outdoor type actives other than instruction, use the camping category under recreation and amusement.


Public administration

This category is for all government functions; it includes federal, state, and local government agencies that administer, oversee, and manage public programs and have executive, legislative, or judicial authority. Establishments develop policy, create laws, adjudicate civil and criminal legal cases, and provide for public safety and for national defense. However, government agencies also engage in a wide range of functions similar to private establishments. For such functions use the appropriate functional category (selling maps or operating a convention center). Ownership is not the determining criteria for this category; use the ownership dimension to classify such distinctions. Similarly, use the structure-type dimension to differentiate a government office building from a jail.


Legislative and executive functions

Some planning applications may require additional categories to differentiate various local departments (e.g., public works versus planning). In such cases, use the ownership dimension to create additional categories at the fourth-digit level.


Judicial functions

This category comprises civilian courts of law and correctional institutions.



Use this classification for civilian courts of law (except Indian tribal and Alaska Native courts). Included are civilian courts, courts of law, and sheriffs" offices conducting court functions only.


Correctional institutions

These government establishments manage and operate correctional institutions. Their facilities are generally designed for the confinement, correction, and rehabilitation of offenders sentenced by a court.


Other government functions

Use this category for government-owned establishments not classified elsewhere.


Military and national security

This class includes defense, national guard, and other national security establishments.


Space research and technology

This subcategory comprises government establishments that administer and operate space flights, space research, and space exploration. Included are government establishments operating space flight centers.


Public Safety

This category comprises government-owned establishments providing fire and rescue, police, and emergency response services. For private establishments offering such services, use the appropriate professional service or health care category.


Fire and rescue

Fire and rescue establishments engage in fire fighting and other related fire protection activities. Establishments providing fire protection along with ambulance or rescue services are classified here.



Police establishments provide criminal and civil law enforcement, police, traffic safety, and other activities related to the enforcement of the law and preservation of order. Combined police and fire departments are included. For private guard and security services, use the appropriate sales and services classification.


Emergency response

Use this classification for establishments providing ground or air transportation for medical relief purposes. These services are often provided during a medical emergency but are not restricted to emergencies. The vehicles are equipped with lifesaving equipment operated by medically trained personnel.


Health and human services

Establishments in this category provide health care at all levels (preventive to surgical), social assistance, and associated services. These establishments require workers with the appropriate expertise for such services, and are bound to the regulations and oversight of local, state, and federal health and human services departments. Use the category level for classifying ambulance services and other medical transport establishments. Use the other dimensions to identify the precise activity and structure type in which the establishment is located. The ownership dimension will help identify public versus private facilities.


Ambulatory or outpatient care services

Ambulatory or outpatient care establishments offer health care services directly to patients without providing inpatient services.



These establishments include physician offices, dentists, chiropractors, optometrists, etc.


Family planning and outpatient care centers

Family planning establishments provide outpatient family planning services, such as contraceptive services, genetic and prenatal counseling, voluntary sterilization, and other pregnancy services. Outpatient care centers or clinics have several practitioners with different specializations practicing within the same establishment. Many such centers also function as HMO medical centers and focus on primary health care. Some HMO centers also have functions related to insurance underwriting.


Medical and diagnostic laboratories

These establishments are laboratories that provide analytic or diagnostic services, and other services, such as medical imaging, and forensics.


Blood and organ banks

These establishments collect, store, or distribute blood and organs.


Nursing, supervision, and other rehabilitative services

Establishments in this subcategory provide inpatient nursing and rehabilitative services and can accommodate patients for extended care. These establishments have licensed health care staff serving patients and other support staff for continuous personal care services. Convalescent homes, convalescent hospitals, inpatient care hospices, nursing homes, and rest homes with nursing care are a few examples of services these establishments provide. This category also includes mental retardation services (not licensed hospital care) to people with mental illness, substance abuse problems, psychiatric convalescent needs, etc. The focus of these services may include health care, but the primary purpose is protective supervision and counseling. Other terms used to describe these services are: alcoholism or drug addiction rehabilitation, mental health halfway houses, group homes for the emotionally disturbed, and psychiatric convalescent homes. Other rehabilitation services establishments in this category provide include boot or disciplinary camps (except correctional), housing services for hearing or visually impaired, disabled, etc.



Hospitals provide medical, diagnostic, and treatment services. These establishments often offer physician, nursing and specialized accommodation services for inpatient care.


Social assistance, welfare, and charitable services

These establishments provide social assistance services directly to individuals. They do not offer residential or accommodation services.


Child and youth services

These establishments offer services such as adoption, foster care, drug prevention services, and life-skills training.


Child day care

Child day care establishments primarily care for infants and preschool children and often offer pre-kindergarten education programs. Some provide care services for older children.


Community food services

These establishments collect, prepare, and deliver food for the needy. They distribute clothing and bedding, run collections for food and donations, and provide meals at fixed or mobile locations. Examples are food banks, meal delivery programs, and soup kitchens.


Emergency and relief services

These establishments provide food, shelter, clothing, medical relief, resettlement, and counseling to disaster victims.


Other family services

Hotline centers, suicide crisis centers, self-help organizations, etc., are some examples of establishments in this class.


Services for elderly and disabled

These establishments serve the elderly and persons with disabilities in a variety of ways (not at their homes). Services typically include group support, companionship, day care, homemaker services, etc. This class does not include housing for the elderly.


Veterans affairs

These establishments provide health and human services for veterans. Many such facilities also maintain liaison and coordination functions.


Vocational rehabilitation

Establishments in this class provide job counseling, job training, and other vocational services. Their primary clients are unemployed, underemployed, disabled, homeless, etc.


Religious institutions

These establishments operate religious organizations, such as churches, temples, monasteries, synagogues, etc. Use the other dimensions to note if the institution is educational, a hospital, or a church.


Death care services

Establishments in the death care category include funeral homes, crematories, cemeteries, and similar establishments. In economic classification systems, these are often included along with other personal services. However, due to traditional planning distinctions, they are placed here.


Funeral homes and services

This category comprises establishments preparing the dead for burial or interment and conducting funerals (i.e., providing facilities for wakes, arranging transportation for the dead, selling caskets and related merchandise). Funeral homes combined with crematories are also included.


Cremation services and cemeteries

These establishments operate sites or structures reserved for the interment of human or animal remains, or for cremating the dead.


Associations, nonprofit organizations, etc.

Included are grant making, civic, professional, and similar organizations. These establishments advocate social and political causes, and promote and defend the interests of their members. Establishments in this category may publish newsletters, books, and periodicals, for distribution to their membership.


Labor and political organizations

These establishments promote the interests of organized labor and union employees, national, state, or local political parties or candidates. Included are labor unions, political groups, and political fund raising groups.


Business associations and professional membership organizations

These establishments promote the business interests of their members, or of their profession as a whole. They may conduct research on new products and services; develop market statistics; sponsor quality and certification standards; lobby public officials; or publish newsletters, books, or periodicals for distribution to their members.


Civic, social, and fraternal organizations

This category comprises establishments that promote the interests of their members, or, that promote a particular cause (except labor, political, or professional organizations). These establishments may provide grantmaking foundations or charitable trusts, raise funds for social welfare activities, such as health, educational, scientific, and cultural activities. They may solicit contributions and offer memberships. Establishments in this category may operate bars and restaurants for their members.

7000 Construction-related businesses #008B8B

These establishments either build buildings or structures, or perform additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation, and repairs. They may also provide building demolition or wrecking services. Establishments engaged in blasting, test drilling, landfill, leveling, earthmoving, excavating, land drainage, and other land preparation are included as well. This category reflects the unique processes employed by the establishments. Coding should reflect the location of the establishment and not where it is performing its services (which often happens on other sites). Construction sites must get the appropriate function code for the enterprise for which the construction (or demolition) is being undertaken. However, in the activity dimension, such sites may be categorized under construction activity.


Building, developing, and general contracting

Establishments in this subcategory are responsible for the entire construction (i.e., new work, addition, alteration, and repair) of building projects. Construction work may be for others, or for the establishment as a speculative or operative builder. Establishments include custom builders, design builders, engineer-constructors, general contractors, joint-venture contractors, turnkey contractors, developers, land subdivides, and construction management firms.


Residential construction

Establishments in this subcategory construct single and multi-family residential housing. Housing may be constructed for sale or rental. Establishments include custom housing builders and on-site mobile home addition, alteration, and assembly establishments.


Land development and subdivision

Establishments in this subcategory subdivide real property into lots and develop building lots for sale.


Industrial, commercial and institutional building construction

Establishments in this subcategory construct industrial, commercial, and institutional buildings (e.g., plants, mills, factories, stores, schools, hospitals, office buildings, public warehouses).


Machinery related

This category comprises contractors that install or utilize specialized machinery not generally used by other building or trade contractors. The subcategories reflect similar types of machinery installed or used.


Building equipment and machinery installation contractors

These establishments: (1) install or dismantle building equipment, machinery or other industrial equipment (except plumbing, heating, air conditioning or electrical equipment); (2) provide machine rigging; and (3) provide millwriting. Equipment installed includes automated and revolving doors, conveyor systems, dumbwaiters, dust collecting equipment, elevators, small incinerators, pneumatic tubes systems, and built-in vacuum cleaning systems.


Excavation contractor

These establishments prepare land for building construction. Activities they perform include shaft drilling, foundation digging, foundation drilling, and grading.


Water well drilling contractor

Water well drilling contractors drill, tap, and cap water wells, and provide geothermal drilling.


Wrecking and demolition establishment

These establishments provide wrecking and demolition of buildings and structures; this includes underground tank removal and the dismantling of non-hazardous steel oil tanks. Some of these establishments may sell materials derived from demolishing operations.


Structural steel erection contractor

Structural steel erection contractors: (1) erect metal, structural steel, and similar products of prestressed or precast concrete to produce structural elements, building exteriors, and elevator fronts; (2) set rods, bars, rebar, mesh, and cages, to reinforce poured-in-place concrete; and (3) erect cooling towers and metal storage tanks.


Special trade contractor

Establishments in this category specialize in construction activities, such as plumbing, painting, and electrical work. These activities may be subcontracted from builders or general contractors or may be performed directly for project owners. Construction work includes new work, additions, alterations, maintenance, and repairs. Special trade contractors usually work at the job site, although they may have shops for prefabrication and other work. Establishments performing heavy construction activities, such as grading for highways, are classified elsewhere, in "heavy construction".


Carpentry, floor, and tile contractor

These establishments provide framing, carpentry, finishing work, floor laying, and miscellaneous floor installation and tiling services. Activities include installation of doors, windows, tile, interior marble, terrazzo, mosaic, carpeting, linoleum, wood flooring, and resilient flooring; and other services, such as paneling, steel framing, ship joinery, and on-site terrazzo preparation.


Concrete contractor

Concrete contractors use concrete and asphalt to produce parking areas, building foundations, structures, and retaining walls; and use of all materials to produce patios, private driveways, and private walks. Activities performed by these establishments include grout and shotcrete work.


Electrical contractor

These establishments perform on-site electrical work, equipment service, and installation; they may sell electrical equipment along with installation.


Glass and glazing contractor

These establishments install (i.e., by glazing) and tint glass. However, automotive glass establishments are classified in retail sales and services under "automotive sales and service establishments".


Masonry and drywall contractors

These establishments provide masonry, stone setting, drywall, plaster, and other stone and building insulation work. Activities include: block and stone foundation construction; brick and glass block laying; exterior marble, granite and slate work; tuck pointing; acoustical paneling construction; plain and ornamental plaster application; and the installation of lathing to receive plaster.


Painting and wall covering

These establishments provide exterior painting and interior wall covering. Activities range from bridge, ship, and traffic lane painting to paint and wall covering removal.


Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning

Establishments in this subcategory install or service plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning equipment. These establishments may sell equipment along with installation. Activities range from on-site duct fabrication and installation to installation of refrigeration equipment, installation of sprinkler systems, and installation of environmental controls.


Roofing, siding, and sheet metal contractors

These establishments provide installation and services for roofing, siding, sheet metal, and roof drainage equipment, such as downspouts and gutters. Activities include treating roofs (i.e., by spraying, painting, or coating), copper smithing, tin smithing, installing skylights, installing metal ceilings, flashing, duct work, and capping.


Heavy construction

Establishments in this category provide heavy nonbuilding construction. Construction work may involve new construction, reconstruction, additions, alterations, rehabilitation, installation, maintenance, or repair. Establishments may subcontract all or some of the construction work. Establishments include general contractors, design builders, engineer-constructors, and joint-venture contractors. Also included are construction management firms and special trade contractors and subcontractors.


Highway and street construction;

These establishments are responsible for unleavened highway, street, road, or airport runway construction. Included are subcontractors for highway and street construction (e.g., highway grading installation, guardrail installation, and public sidewalk construction).


Bridge and tunnel construction

These establishments are responsible for bridge, viaduct, elevated highway, and tunnel construction.


Water, sewer, and pipeline construction

These establishments are responsible for the construction of water mains, sewers, drains, gas mains, natural gas pumping stations, and gas and oil pipelines. Also included are well drilling contractors that drill, tap, and cap water wells, or that provide geothermal drilling.


Power lines, communication and transmission lines

These establishments are responsible for the construction of electric power and communication transmission lines and towers, radio and television towers, cable laying, and cable television lines.


Industrial and other nonbuilding construction

These establishments are responsible for the construction of heavy industrial and other nonbuilding structures not included elsewhere, such as chemical complexes or facilities, cement plants, petroleum refineries, industrial incinerators, ovens, kilns, power plants, and nuclear reactor containment structures; athletic fields, dams, dikes, docks, drainage projects, golf courses, harbors, parks, reservoirs, canals, sewage treatment plants, water treatment plants, hydroelectric plants, subways, and other mass transit projects. Establishments may provide construction equipment rental with an operator.

8000 Mining and extraction establishments #55008B

These establishments extract natural mineral solids (coal and ores), liquid minerals (crude petroleum), and gases (natural gas). Mining includes quarrying, well operations, beneficiating (e.g., crushing, screening, washing, and flotation), and other preparations customarily performed at the mine site, or as a part of mining activity.


Oil and natural gas

Establishments in this category operate and develop oil and gas field properties. Activities include exploration for crude petroleum and natural gas; drilling, completing, and equipping wells; operation of separators, emulsion breakers, desilting equipment, and field gathering lines; and all other activities in the preparation of oil and gas until shipment. This category includes establishments that produce crude petroleum, that mine and extract oil from shale, that produce natural gas, and that recover hydrocarbon liquids from oil and gas field gases. Establishments may operate on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis.


Metals (iron, copper, etc.)

This category comprises establishments that develop mine sites and mine metallic minerals, and establishments that dress and beneficiate ore, such as by crushing, grinding, washing, drying, sintering, concentrating, calcining, and leaching. Beneficiating may be performed at mills operated in conjunction with the mines, or at mills operated separately.



This category comprises establishments that: (1) mine bituminous coal, anthracite, and lignite; (2) develop coal mine sites; and (3) beneficiate (i.e., prepare) coal (e.g., by cleaning, washing, screening, and sizing coal).


Nonmetallic mining

This category comprises establishments that mine, quarry, or develop the mine site for dimension stone (i.e., rough blocks and slabs of stone) or limestone (including related rocks, such as dolomite, cement rock, marl, travertine, and calcareous tufa). Included in this category are preparation plants that beneficiate limestone (e.g., by grinding or pulverizing).


Quarrying and stone cutting establishment

This category comprises establishments that dredge, quarry, mine, or develop the mine site for crushed and broken stones, sand, gravel, mining clay (e.g., china clay, paper clay and slip clay), or other stones and nonmetallic minerals. Broken and crushed stones include granite and related rocks, such as gneiss, syenite, and diorite; and other stones (except dimension stone and limestone.) Establishments that mine or quarry bituminous limestone and bituminous sandstone are included in this category. Also included are preparation plants that beneficiate stones (e.g., by grinding and pulverizing); and that beneficiate gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals (e.g., by washing, screening, and grinding.)

9000 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting #228B22

These establishments grow crops, raise animals, harvest timber, and harvest fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitats. They may be described as farms, ranches, dairies, greenhouses, nurseries, orchards, or hatcheries.


Crop production

The subcategories under crop production reflect biological, physiological, economic, and production similarities. These similarities may include the growing season length, degree of crop rotation, extent of input specialization, labor requirement, or capital demand.


Grain and oilseed

The classes within this subcategory comprise establishments that grow grains or oilseeds, or that produce the seeds of grain and oilseeds. Use the subcategory to classify establishments with no oilseed, grain, or family of oilseeds or grains accounting for one-half of the crop value, or for establishments growing grains or producing grain seeds not included elsewhere. Otherwise, classify establishments within one of the following classes.



Establishments in this class grow wheat and produce wheat seeds.



Establishments in this class grow corn (except sweet corn) and produce corn seeds. Sweet corn farmers are classified in the vegetable crop production category.



Establishments in this class grow rice (except wild rice) and produce rice seeds. For wild rice, use the upper-level grain and oilseed category.


Soybean and oilseed

Establishments in this class grow oilseed plants, including soybeans, and produce soybean and other oilseed seeds, such as sunflower, safflower, flax, rape, canola, and sesame.


Dry pea and bean

Establishments in this class grow dried peas, beans, and lentils.


Vegetable farming or growing services

Establishments in this class grow root and tuber crops (except peanuts) or edible plants; or they produce root and tuber or edible plant seeds. The crops included in this group have an annual growth cycle and are grown in open fields. Climate and cultural practices limit producing areas but often permit the growing of a combination of crops in a year. Crops include melons, sugar beets, potatoes, and leafy vegetables.


Fruits and trees

Establishments in this class grow fruit (except melons) or tree nut crops. These crops are generally not grown from seeds and have a perennial life cycle. Establishments include citrus groves, apple orchards, grape vineyards, berry farms, and tree nut farms.


Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture

This category comprises establishments growing crops of any kind under cover or growing nursery stock and flowers. "Under cover"" is generally defined as greenhouses, cold frames, cloth houses, and lath houses. The crops grown are removed at various stages of maturity and have annual and perennial life cycles. The nursery stock includes short rotation woody crops that have growth cycles of 10 years or less.


Food crops grown under cover

Establishments in this class grow food crops, such as mushrooms, in underground mines, under glass, or in other controlled environments under cover.


Nursery and tree production

Establishments in this class grow nursery products, nursery stock, shrubbery, bulbs, fruit stock, sod, and so forth; or, grow short rotation woody trees with a growth and harvest cycle of 10 years or less for pulp or tree stock. Establishments growing trees on production cycles over 10 years are classified in "forestry and logging".


Floriculture production

Establishments in this class grow or produce floriculture or ornamental horticulture products (e.g., cut flowers and roses, cut cultivated greens, potted flowering and foliage plants, and flower seeds).


All other crops

Establishments in this subcategory grow crops such as tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, hay, peanuts, and other crops not classified, or, they grow a combination of crops that cannot be classified elsewhere. Included in this subcategory are establishments that gather tea or maple sap.


Tobacco crop

Establishments in this class grow tobacco.


Cotton crop

Establishments in this class grow cotton.


Sugarcane crop

Establishments in this class grow sugarcane.



Establishments in this class grow hay, alfalfa, clover, or mixed hay.


Peanut crop

Establishments in this class grow peanuts.


Support functions for agriculture

This category comprises support establishments employed by the agriculture and forestry industries. They perform activities associated with production and distribution of forest and agricultural products. Many support establishments are independently run.


Farm and farm labor management services

These establishments supply labor or management for agricultural production or harvesting. Labor contractors and crew leaders are included. Management services usually operate for citrus groves, orchards, or vineyards, and may arrange the partial or complete operations of the farm. Management activities may include cultivating, harvesting, or other agricultural support activities; however, for establishments that primarily produce crops, use the appropriate crop production classification.


Spraying, dusting, and other related services

These establishments perform crop protecting services, soil preparation activity, or crop production services. Activities include dusting, spraying, plowing, fertilizing, seed bed preparation, planting, and cultivating.


Crop harvesting and post harvest crop activities (including drying, siloing, etc.)

These establishments provide mechanical harvesting, picking, crop combining, drying, siloing, cleaning, shelling, fumigating, curing, sorting, grading, packing, cooling, and other harvest and post harvest services (except cotton ginning). They may provide the machinery necessary for these tasks.


Cotton ginning, grist milling, etc.


Animal production including slaughter

Establishments in this category raise or fatten animals for the sale of animals or animal products. Establishments keep, graze, breed, or feed animals in ranches, farms, or feedlots. Included in this category are slaughterhouses.


Cattle ranch and crops

The establishments in this subcategory raise cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements), or feed cattle for fattening.


Beef cattle ranch establishments

These raise cattle (including cattle for dairy herd replacements).


Cattle feedlot establishment

These establishments feed cattle for fattening.


Dairy cattle and milk production

This subcategory comprises establishments that milk dairy cattle.


Hog and pig farm

These establishments raise hogs and pigs. Establishments may undertake farming activities, such as breeding, farrowing, and the raising of weanling pigs, feeder pigs, or market size hogs.


Poultry and egg production and hatcheries

These breed, hatch, or raise poultry for meat or egg production.


Sheep and goat farming establishments

These establishments raise sheep, lambs, and goats, or feed lambs for fattening. Sheep or lambs may be raised for sale or wool production.


Fish hatcheries, fisheries, and aquaculture

This class comprises establishments that farm raise finfish, shellfish, or any other kind of animal aquaculture. These establishments use some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as holding in captivity, regular stocking, feeding, or protecting from predators.


All other animal production

This subcategory comprises establishments raising animals and insects (except cattle, hogs and pigs, poultry, sheep and goats, and animal aquaculture) for sale or product production. These establishments raise: bees, horses and other equines, fur-bearing animals, and so forth. Establishments raising a combination of animals with no one animal or family of animals accounting for one-half of the establishment"s agricultural production (i.e., value of animals for market) are included in this subcategory.


Apiculture (bees, wax, and related operations)

This class comprises establishments raising bees. These establishments collect and sell honey; and sell queen bees, packages of bees, royal jelly, bees" wax, propolis, venom, or other bee products.


Horse and equine production

This class comprises establishments raising horses, mules, donkeys, and other equines.


Fur-bearing animal production

This class comprises establishments raising fur-bearing animals including rabbits. These animals may be raised for sale or for their pelt production.


Support functions for animal production

Establishments in this class perform support activities related to raising livestock (e.g., cattle, goats, hogs, horses, poultry, and sheep). They provide services, such as animal breeding, pedigree records, horse boarding, dairy herd improvement, livestock spraying, and sheep dipping and shearing.


Forestry and Logging

Forestry and logging establishments grow and harvest timber on long production cycles (more than 10 years). They also specialize in reforestation, seeding, and similar activities. This category includes establishments specializing in gathering forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, ginseng, and truffles.



This subcategory comprises establishments that operate timber tracts for the purpose of selling standing timber.


Forest nurseries

These establishments grow trees for reforestation and gather forest products, such as gums, barks, balsam needles, rhizomes, fibers, Spanish moss, ginseng, and truffles.


Support functions for forestry

Forestry support establishments perform support activities related to timber production, wood technology, forestry economics and marketing, and forest protection. They provide activities for forestry, such as estimating timber, forest fire-fighting, forest pest control, and consulting on wood attributes and reforestation.


Fishing, hunting and trapping, game preserves

Establishments in this category harvest fish and other wild animals from their natural habitats. Some commercial harvests entail hunting and trapping. For recreational hunting and trapping, use the appropriate recreational category.



These establishments commercially catch or take finfish, shellfish, or miscellaneous marine products from a natural habitat. Marine products include bluefish, eels, salmon, tuna, clams, crabs, lobsters, mussels, oysters, shrimp, frogs, sea urchins, and turtles.


Hunting and trapping, game retreats, game and fishing preserves

These establishments engage in commercial hunting and trapping, or, operate commercial or recreational game or hunting preserves, such as game retreats.


Unclassifiable function

Use this code as a temporary placeholder for unique functions that cannot be grouped anywhere until the classification scheme is updated. Check the LBCS web site to see how others have dealt with such unique activities before revising the classification scheme.


Not applicable to this dimension

Use this code as a permanent code for those records that will never be classified in this dimension.

It is common for land-use databases to have records that are never classified, but left blank instead. However, LBCS recommends that all records have a code because some computer applications may not be able handle blank entries (null values in database terminology).


To be determined

Use this code as a placeholder until an appropriate code can be assigned.


To be determined