Hazards Planning Center

Innovations in Planning and Public Engagement for Community Resilience

FEMA Public Engagement

In this FEMA-funded project, APA, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the National Charrette Institute (NCI), will develop a set of web-based tools and techniques to help planners engage their communities in order to help them prepare for and recover from disasters. These tools and processes could be used by planners in the context of an overall community plan update, as part of special purpose plans, or in developing a stand-alone community resilience plan and implementation strategy.

The essential deliverable of this project is an interactive web-based resource that guides a community through a decision-making process map. The three-phase NCI Charrette Project Management System will serve as a framework for the resource. Users will be able to click through the process map and select specific tools designed to assist in the assessment, organization, and facilitation of a pre-disaster planning charrette. Tools include identification of guiding principles, objectives and measures, stakeholder analysis and engagement, and pre-charrette roadmapping. The intent is to emphasize the use of visual devices like flow charts, social mapping, diagrams, and renderings.

The benefit of this project, especially given APA's inherent reach within the planning profession, is to begin to create meaningful linkages between routine urban planning and the technology required. It is essential that people feel solutions are accessible and understandable. To achieve this goal, this project will explain in plain English through accessible web-based resources how planners can utilize these tools, and help to empower citizens in the process of planning for greater community resilience. By creating a resource with the capacity for future enhancements and the potential for funding outreach through professional conferences and community venues, APA would be bridging a gap that has persisted for many years.

Components of the project include:

  • assessment of available models, tools, and methods that assess flood risk (both likelihood and exposure) at a specific location;
  • identification of points of intervention where the relevant models, tools, and methods can be integrated into the planning process;
  • identification of opportunities to demonstrate the use of the models, tools, and processes in local planning;
  • demonstration of the approach within pilot communities;
  • outreach to help other communities understand the opportunities; and
  • identification of parallel concepts for other threats to communities.

With the completion of Phase I, which included the website pages and the Scenario Planning Model Report, phase II of the project was approved by FEMA in September 2016 and will continue for an additional two years beginning October 1, 2016.

In the second phase, the project partners will work with at least one demonstration site community to conduct a public engagement workshop demonstrating the community resilience scenario planning model (CRSPM) tools after they have been refined using CommunityViz software as the underlying platform.

Scenario Planning Model

INNOVATIONS IN PLANNING AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE

Research staff from the UCSD Center for Sustainability Science, Planning and Design — working with Placeways, its technical consultant on the UCSD "Spatial Analysis and Communication Toolbox" Project — has prepared a report outlining an approach for developing a "Community Resilience" Scenario Planning Model. This model uses CommunityViz scenario planning software and other readily available GIS software tools.

Project Overview

In this FEMA-funded project, APA, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), the National Charrette Institute (NCI), and Placeways, will develop a set of web-based tools and techniques that will help planners engage their communities, integrating with the available analytical tools and civic engagement processes, in order to help them prepare for and recover from disasters. The project will explore the best ways to use the most cutting-edge technological and conceptual tools and participatory processes to engage citizens in the recovery planning process, integrating both for pre-event planning and post-disaster recovery planning.

These existing web-based resources produced by UCSD and Placeways will include links to proprietary software systems that provide many of the services described, with appropriate descriptions of how they can be acquired and used. It will not be the intent of the website to replace any existing technologies. It is the intent of the project, in combination with other resources produced by APA in partnership with FEMA, such as PAS Report No. 576, Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation, to lead planners through the practical steps of using such tools to produce improved results in envisioning more resilient community futures in the face of natural disasters. For this purpose, the collaboration between NCI and APA will be especially effective in shaping the narrative of the website by using the charrette process as a foundation for organizing the steps laid out on the website for organizing public engagement in resilience planning.

While the web-based resources will be designed as a free-standing deliverable providing immediate value to users, this product is intended to spur further elaborations of the core concept behind this proposal. It is also intended to facilitate potential future funding from both FEMA and outside sources, including foundations.

First, this project could be complemented in future years with training workshops at both the APA National Planning Conference in April 2017 in New York and annual conferences of interested chapters beginning in the fall of 2016. In addition, APA's partners would acquire a toolkit that could be used for further dissemination through both the training provided by the National Charrette Institute and the professional education offered by the Urban Studies and Planning Program at UCSD. Finally, in future phases, the project could include development of local demonstration case studies that provide examples of these approaches in different types of community settings.

Second, with regard to other sources of funding, this project provides an opportunity for community foundations or other local sources of financial support to enable the partners to conduct demonstrations in local settings and use these to develop case studies that can build out the website with real-life experience. Basically, because such case study demonstration projects will be used to build out the website, they at once expand the reach of the original project proposed here and allow buy-in from local sponsors who want their own communities to access both direct experience with the tools this project features and the expertise of the partners.

What types of communities can benefit from this project?

One precondition for resilience is a predisposition toward open, transparent processes for decision making. Successful public engagement is highly dependent on trust between citizens and stakeholders and elected and appointed decision makers in the community. Just as important, however, is the willingness to invest the time and resources in public engagement to educate stakeholders and the broader public about the issues and challenges involved in achieving resilience, why it matters, and how it potentially affects the community's future. Finally, all sides must be open to new information and new perspectives in an honest quest to solve often thorny issues affecting development and quality of life.

In short, the civic atmosphere of a community may affect success every bit as much as the availability of resources to tap the tools presented in this project. It is often true that larger or more affluent communities are more likely to contain the capacity to undertake technology initiatives, but the other factors of transparency and receptivity to scientific information and new perspectives may often tip the balance. In short, good planning can happen anywhere and is guaranteed nowhere. Size of a community is ultimately far less important than good decision-making processes and creativity in tapping resources that can aid those processes.

It also helps when a community has gained some real life experience with natural hazards. Learning from past disasters and setbacks is critical, and visionary leadership can arise in such situations to help move communities forward. Past APA projects have often talked about champions for problem solving and good governance whose steadfast advocacy has helped alter the community's outlook with regard to reducing its vulnerabilities to flooding, coastal storms, or wildfire hazards. Leadership matters.

Is your community ready to benefit from this project? Are you ready to help move your community in the right direction? We are certainly looking toward the future with an eye to possible demonstration projects and case studies. We are interested in using good planning to help everyone "pay it forward" with regard to fostering resilience in the face of future natural disasters.

Issues

The first and biggest issue confronted by this project is what we mean when we talk about resilience. As noted in Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation (PAS 576), APA has found elegant simplicity in the National Academy of Sciences definition that resilience is "the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events."

Note that "ability" is the word that forms the linchpin of that definition. Without the social, economic, and governmental capacity to make resilience happen, it is mostly empty rhetoric. The purpose of this project, "Innovations in Planning and Public Engagement for Community Resilience," is to package much of what we already know, and the tools that have been created, and the public dialogue and engagement methods that have succeeded, in such a way as to make them accessible and clearly related to each other, so as to build resilience at the level of community. That is why we talk about a marriage of high-tech and high-touch; either one without the other leaves a public either with mapping, visualization, and scenario planning technology it does not adequately understand or involved in a process that may not be adequately informed on the technical and scientific issues related to resilience. The public needs to be both engaged and well informed in order to succeed in creating a resilient community.

In terms of specific disaster issues, many of the concepts behind this project could be applied to virtually any natural hazard in some way. However, some entail more immediate opportunities for meaningful engagement concerning public policy and action with regard to resilience. It seems to the partners in this project that stormwater and floodplain management issues offer some of the best initial opportunities for productive use of visualization and scenario planning tools as well as planning processes to resolve questions that have bedeviled public officials for years. Urban flooding, an issue directly connected to stormwater management, poses numerous questions related to both green and gray infrastructure, development practices that produce more or less impervious surface, and serious questions of where particular types of both development and open space should be sited. All of these issues lend themselves, to one degree or another, to iterative cycles of scenario planning, scientific information sharing, and design and public policy decisions to move steadily toward goals of increased community resilience. Those decisions must account for not only known and existing patterns of storm activity and drainage, but new or more extensive patterns resulting from possible increases in extreme weather events due to climate change. This is especially true in coastal communities where the impacts of storm surge may be exacerbated by sea level rise.

As a result, although we can foresee uses of the tools presented here now or in the future for other hazards such as wildfire or seismic events, we have chosen to focus initially on flooding and stormwater management as the most immediately promising issues to address, and certainly the issues with the widest application to communities nationwide.

Needs

Both our increased knowledge of post-disaster recovery processes and the ongoing development of technological tools to facilitate analysis, visualization, and public engagement in the planning process have made it clear that recovery and resilience planning is undergoing significant changes that will continue well into the future. These changes can significantly improve the preparedness and resilience of communities that undertake this process; however, much will depend on their capacity to use the tools and processes that become available to them. Therefore, developing sound, knowledgeable, and forward-looking guidance for the planners and allied professionals most likely to employ such tools and processes in advancing the recovery process is essential to helping the federal government, states, and communities fulfill the whole community vision of resilience in the face of future disasters.

Across the nation and the world, communities struck by natural disasters face the awesome task of determining how to rebuild in the face of a new normal. Often, the community of the past, the community familiar to the survivors, is no longer viable and cannot be retrieved. In the face of much that is lost forever, people must find ways to envision a new future that ideally will build greater resilience in the face of future disasters. What is not always clear is how community planners and leaders can help citizens envision the future in a manner that is both visionary and realistic. To be meaningful, visions must be achievable. The ability to plant in people's minds accurate mental images of a more resilient future and to create a level of comfort with those alternatives is central to success.

A number of existing tools help people envision scenarios resulting from future events, and visualize alternative designs for neighborhoods that will make them less susceptible to flooding, more resistant to seismic tremors, stronger in the face of hurricane and tornado winds and windstorms. What has typically been missing is a meaningful linkage between routine urban planning and the technology required, so that people feel that these solutions are accessible and understandable. To some extent, that requires making the tools meaningful and accessible even to planners, many of whom find GIS and other tools difficult to use and comprehend.

This project aims not only to help bridge those gaps but to bring together high-tech and high-touch solutions in ways that will guide communities and their citizens through the complexities of planning for long-term disaster resilience. Consequently, the links below will lead you in three directions:

  • An examination of the Tools and Models that can help provide clear and understandable images of achievable, resilient futures for your community;
  • identification of points of intervention where the relevant models, tools, and methods can be integrated into the planning process;
  • A step-by-step description of the Processes for engaging stakeholders in productive discussions of those alternatives in ways that yield meaningful resolution of real problems, using the methodology and experience of charrettes and the National Charrette Institute; and
  • Training opportunities that the partners will seek to develop as an outgrowth of this project.

Project Contributors

Ameran Planning Association

FEMA has worked in partnership with APA for nearly 25 years. During that time, APA has repeatedly taken the lead in pushing the envelope of understanding of the planning process as it applies to hazard mitigation, post-disaster recovery, and even the challenging subject of climate change adaptation. In its recent PAS Report, Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation, APA extensively details the process of post-disaster recovery planning with regard to goals and policies, the planning process, and implementation.

Throughout that document, APA stresses the importance of informed public participation and the power of a guiding vision for greater resilience. In the course of completing that project, APA also worked with chapters in New York and New Jersey, FEMA recovery staff, and supportive allied organizations to plan and execute a series of training workshops on recovery planning in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. These took place the first week of April 2013.

Over time, APA has moved its 40,000 members and the planning profession forward in its commitment to a greater emphasis on resilience in our nation's communities. One vivid demonstration of the growing interest among APA members in this topic is the official approval in 2015 of the new Hazard Mitigation and Disaster Recovery Planning Division, an excellent partner for the Hazards Planning Center in identifying special areas of expertise within our own membership. Having laid that groundwork, APA is now using this project to further advance the practice of recovery planning.

UC San Diego

UCSD has a world-class network of research centers and academic programs that are now leading urban sustainability initiatives in the San Diego–Tijuana Region, including the Center on Global Justice, Center for Urban Ecologies, Global Health Initiative, and the Superfund Research Center's (SRC) Community Engagement Core and Research Translation Core, which are funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2012-2017). These organizations are significantly amplifying UCSD's capacity for civic engagement in teaching and research.

Through its Superfund Research Center, UCSD is currently engaged in research and model development that relates directly to the proposed APA project. In its current work, UCSD has designated the Euclid/Market Trolley Village study area in Southeastern San Diego as a demonstration project area to test state-of-the-art urban and environmental planning scenario tools. The UCSD "Spatial Analysis and

Communication Toolbox" project is conceived as a multi-phased effort to create a comprehensive "toolbox" of modeling capabilities for preparing, analyzing, and visualizing alternative land use/transportation scenarios at the neighborhood scale, using CommunityViz scenario planning software as a platform. The initial phase involves development of a water quality scenario planning model that utilizes ESRI's ArcHydro flow path model to provide coefficient-based modeling capabilities for estimating the costs and benefits of various types of stormwater mitigation strategies that are relevant to urban infill development projects. The flow path model also identifies areas of nuisance flooding and has been used by the City of Chicago to site and size green infrastructure practices in the most efficient and effective locations. By looking at the relationship between green infrastructure opportunities, stormwater mitigation strategies, and other important land-use and environmental planning considerations in urban infill neighborhoods such as this, planners and community stakeholders can come up with "win-win" land-use and green infrastructure solutions that will meet a variety of community needs. UCSD is currently working on the second phase of its project, which has expanded the functionality of the Phase I model and will also involve use of this model to develop suitability maps for urban agriculture uses in urban infill neighborhoods, taking into account water quality, water resource availability, suspected brownfield toxics in the soil, and various economic and social factors.

Over the years, UCSD has been involved in a variety of other projects related to hazards planning and resilience. For example, in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, UCSD researchers worked with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to develop an Environmental Health Sciences Data Research Portal that would provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to:

a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters;

b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and

c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies that will lead to improved community resiliency.

Placeways

Placeways LLC is a software and services firm specializing in GIS-based planning services and technology. Placeways is a national leader in scenario planning and related fields. Placeways professional services consultants assist communities and regions with innovative visualization and analysis technology for planning. Placeways' award-winning software, CommunityViz, is widely used throughout North America and the world for scenario-based land-use planning and 3D visualization. In addition, Placeways custom software developers create innovative, interactive applications for a wide variety of planning analysis and outreach needs.

Placeways has worked with UCSD on the "Spatial Analysis and Communication Toolbox" project since its inception, and has had extensive experience with FEMA and other public agencies on hazards planning projects, including development of the Hazus Risk Assessment Wizard in CommunityViz, which interfaces with FEMA's standardized loss estimation technology (Hazus) to assist planners and emergency managers in compiling disaster modeling results and evaluating the effectiveness of proposed mitigation strategies for hurricane, earthquake, and flood risks.

The Hazus Risk Assessment Wizard pulls data from a Hazus analysis into a CommunityViz Scenario 360 analysis, copies the Hazus data into geodatabase feature classes, and generates a number of Scenario 360 components. Placeways and PlaceMatters partnered with EPA and FEMA to host a five-day workshop with Long Island area planners on participatory scenario planning as part of the Sandy recovery coordination. Placeways was also responsible for developing the Coastal Health and Resources Model (CHARM) with Texas A & M University for use in stakeholder workshops to discuss strategies for coastal resiliency planning in the Houston/Galveston metropolitan area.

National Charrette Institute

The National Charrette Institute (NCI) is a nonprofit educational institution that helps individuals build community capacity through collaboration to create healthy community plans. NCI teaches professionals and community leaders the art and science of the NCI Charrette System, a holistic, collaborative planning process that harnesses the talents and energies of all interested parties to create and support a feasible plan. NCI also advances the fields of community planning and public involvement through research and publications.

NCI is interested in assuring long-term project success through the NCI Charrette System. To this aim, the best charrette practices are taught during NCI courses by occasionally managing a charrette in response to a non-competitive request. Projects are able to move past roadblocks while NCI delivers expert project management, coaching, and direction throughout the event. The system is designed to bring together large numbers of stakeholders with disparate interests to quickly design a realistic plan of action.

Through NCI guidance, a diverse set of partners and stakeholders uses a combination of "high-tech" plus traditional "high-touch" tools. High-tech tools such as CommunityViz excel at providing community members with a realistic perspective on the impacts and trade-offs of planning decisions. However, the traditional paper and pencil drawing methods occasionally work better to make people feel a part of the design decision-making process. The NCI Charrette System uses both high-tech and high-touch tools to help communities design realistic plans.

In 2011, NCI was contracted by Jefferson County, Alabama, with funding by the Enterprise Foundation, to conduct a post-disaster charrette and training in the wake of a tornado outbreak. Participants included FEMA and planners, non-profits, and community leaders from three affected towns. The results were roadmaps for each town charting the post-recovery planning charrettes and activities.

In more recent work, NCI conducted a five-day charrette for Center City Norman, Oklahoma, a district encompassing the downtown business district, Campus Corner near the University of Oklahoma (OU), and the connecting neighborhoods in between. The area is characterized by surface parking lots, vacant business spaces, and residential areas with ad hoc development projects housing many OU students. As a result of the charrette, a vision was developed in full cooperation with all stakeholder groups, resetting the conversation from specific, spontaneous development projects to a broader vision that acknowledges, recognizes, and honors the work done previously by the community. This vision was used to create a series of Form-Based Codes, thus implementing the vision in all future development projects.

Project Deliverables

The essential deliverable of this project will be an interactive web-based resource that guides a community through a decision-making process map. The three-phase NCI Charrette Project Management System will serve as a framework for the resource. Users can click through the process map and select specific tools designed to assist their community in the assessment, organization, and facilitation of a pre-disaster planning charrette. Tools include identification of guiding principles, objectives and measures, stakeholder analysis and engagement, and pre-charrette roadmap.

APA will host this web-based resource, but all three partners will cross-reference these resources to make them more widely accessible. Wherever possible, the web-based resource would also reference and link to other web-based resources already created by the three partners in order to expand the universe of information directly accessible to users of this product, e.g., the project resources created by APA for Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation.

The goal will be to emphasize the use of visual devices like flow charts, social mapping, diagrams, and renderings. Through these visual models, users will be able to assess flood risk (both likelihood and exposure) at a specific location, identify points of intervention where the relevant models, tools, and methods can be integrated into the planning process, and identify opportunities to demonstrate the use of the models, tools, and processes in the local planning process.

Scenario Planning Model Report

Research staff from the UCSD Center for Sustainability Science, Planning and Design — working with Placeways, its technical consultant on the UCSD "Spatial Analysis and Communication Toolbox" Project — has prepared a report outlining an approach for developing a "Community Resilience" Scenario Planning Model. This model uses CommunityViz scenario planning software and other readily available GIS software tools.

The report lays out the structure and contents of the existing "Water Quality Planning Model" (UCSD-WQPM) that was developed at UCSD with consulting assistance from Placeways and other technical experts. This model is designed to allow analysis of proposed development projects in relation to stormwater runoff impacts and mitigation requirements under the San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board's MS4 Permit. It also allows for preliminary design of off-site stormwater mitigation projects, including urban agriculture and other "green infrastructure" projects, and calculation of "Alternative Compliance mitigation credits" that could be generated from such projects pursuant to the MS4 permit. The existing model was developed with CommunityViz scenario planning software, and also utilizes ESRI's ArcHydro Flowpath Model.

The report also outlines an approach for modifying the UCSD–WQPM so that it can be used both to evaluate existing flood hazard risks within an urban neighborhood and to prepare scenarios that would allow for evaluation of land use and ecological restoration strategies that could lead to reduced flood hazard risks. Specifically, the modified model is designed to allow for estimation of the costs and benefits associated with these scenarios, using readily available GIS layers and cost/benefit calculators such as FEMA's HAZUS Models and "Environmental Benefits Calculator" wherever possible. Finally, the report provides a summary of the means by which this proposed model could be developed and tested.

Annotated Bibliography

Al Khodmany, K. "Using visualization techniques for enhancing public participation in planning and design: process, implementation and evaluation." Landscape and Urban Planning, 45. 1999. Available at http://urbp278.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/63254860/Reading%203%20-%20GIS%20Applications%20to%20Chicago%20Planning.pdf.

  • Describes three different visualization tools employed during a participatory planning process in Chicago's Pilsen neighborhood.

Al-Kodmany, Kheir. "Visualization Tools and Methods in Community Planning: From Freehand Sketches to Virtual Reality." Journal of Planning Literature, 17(2). 2002.

  • Reviews both traditional and computerized visualization tools and attempts to provide a general map for planners as they navigate through the multitude of options that currently exist for visualization in public participation planning.

Bishop, Ian D., and Eckart Lange (ed.). Visualization in Environmental Planning: Technology and Applications. Taylor and Francis. July 2005.

  • Looks at how landscape and environmental planning are impacted by computer-based visualization of the natural and built environment. Includes case studies focused on forestry, agriculture, ecology, mining, and urban development.

Burch, S., Sheppard, S.R.J., Shaw, A. and Flanders, D. "Planning for climate change in a flood-prone community: municipal barriers to policy action and the use of visualizations as decision-support tools." Journal of Flood Risk Management, 3: 126–139. 2010. Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2010.01062.x/abstract.

  • Examines a new process for envisioning local climate change futures, which uses an iterative, collaborative, multi-stakeholder approach to produce computer-generated 3-dimensional images of climate change futures in the flood-prone municipality of Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

CARE International. Decision-making for climate resilient livelihoods and risk reduction: A Participatory Scenario Planning approach. 2012. Available at http://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/CC-2011-ALP_PSP_Brief.pdf

  • Describes the benefits of participatory scenario planning for informing climate-resilient livelihoods and disaster risk reduction with a focus on vulnerable communities.

Community and Regional Resilience Institute. Success Stories: The Importance of Effective Community Engagement. October 2013. Available at http://www.resilientus.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Oct-Success-Stories-Compilation-Community-Engagement.pdf

  • Collection of seven community resilience and recovery success stories involving community engagement

Dockerty, Trudie, Andrew Lovett, Gilla Sunnenberg, Katy Appleton, and Martin Parry. "Visualizing the potential impacts of climate change on rural landscapes." Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 29(3). May 2005.

  • This paper looks at how GIS-based visualization can help represent climate change information, focusing on an agricultural area.

ENVIRON International Corporation. Economic Analysis of Nature-Based Adaptation to Climate Change: Ventura County, CA. February 2015.

  • This report explores the question of whether nature‐based interventions that capitalize on existing natural processes (e.g., wetland and dune restoration) could reduce risk from sea-level rise effectively while still protecting the natural ecosystem functions).

Hodges, Tina; Rasmussen, Benjamin; Siddiqui, Chowdhury; Sussman, Aaron. Scenario Planning For Sustainability and Resilience: Central New Mexico as National Example. August 2015. http://www.icoet.net/ICOET_2015/documents/ICOET2015_Paper_102A_Rasmussen_et_al.pdf

  • This report is a case study from the Albuquerque Metropolitan Planning Area, where a climate change analysis was incorporated into a land use and transportation scenario planning process.

Holway, Jim. "Scenario Planning Tools for Sustainable Communities." Land Lines. October 2011. Available at https://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/dl/1952_1273_LLA111003.pdf

  • Describes recent scenario planning work done in the western states

Kwartler, Michael, and Gianni Longo. Visioning and Visualization: People, Pixels, and Plans. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. April 2008.

  • Authors Michael Kwartler and Gianni Longo present principles, techniques, and cases based on their professional experiences in developing sophisticated public involvement processes that are used to apply information technology to planning and design.

LaGro, Jr., James A. Site Analysis: Informing Context-Sensitive and Sustainable Site Planning and Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. February 2013.

  • Evaluates on-site and off-site factors to inform the design of places — including neighborhoods and communities — that are attractive, walkable, and climate-resilient.

Lennertz, Bill and Lutzenhiser, Aarin. "The Charrette Handbook." American Planning Association Publishing. 2006.

  • A comprehensive step-by-step guide for how to plan and hold a successful charrette.

Lewis, J.L., & Sheppard, R.J. (2006). "Can landscape visualization improve forest management consultation with indigenous communities?" Landscape and Urban Planning, 77(3), 219-313.

  • Analyzed the acceptability and effectiveness of a small sample of community members with various landscape management scenarios in the form of simple GIS maps and photo-realistic images.

McNamee, Kerry; Nugent, Andrew; Richmond, Laurie; Weinstein, Christopher; Wisheropp, Evan. Scenario Planning for Building Coastal Resilience in the Face of Sea Level Rise: The Case of Jacobs Avenue, Eureka, CA. Humboldt Journal Of Social Relations — Issue 36. 2014. Available at http://www2.humboldt.edu/hjsr/issues/issue%2036/12_MCNAMEE_et_al_Scenario_Planning_for_Coastal_Resilience.pdf

  • A scenario-based set of management options to guide stakeholders in future decision making regarding the fate of Jacobs Avenue in Eureka, CA.

Maher, Paul, Eric Rapaport, and Patricia Manuel. "Visualizing Sea-Level Rise." Atlantic Climate Adaptation Solutions Association. May 2012. Available at http://atlanticadaptation.ca/sites/discoveryspace.upei.ca.acasa/files/Visualising%20sea%20level%20rise_0.pdf.

  • Explores ways in which the visualization of sea-level rise could improve cognition and engage decision makers to better understand the anticipated effects of sea-level rise for climate change adaptation planning.

Michael Baker Jr., Inc. "Visualizations of Adaptation Scenarios and Next Steps White Paper." February 2015. Available at http://togethernorthjersey.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/JC-Report-V6_021420151.pdf.

  • Serves as a road map for Jersey City in the scoping and development of an approach to the preparation of a benefit-cost analysis of adaptation measures.

Miles, Scott B. and Stephanie E. Chang. "Urban Disaster Recovery: A Framework and Simulation Model." University of Washington. July 2003. Available at https://ubir.buffalo.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10477/773/03-0005.pdf.

  • Focuses on an educational tool for illustrating concepts for community recovery, and identifying data collection and research needs for more refined recovery models in the future.

Nicholson-Cole, Sophie A. "Representing climate change future: a critique on the use of images for visual communication." Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 29. 2005. Available at http://web.env.auckland.ac.nz/courses/geog320/resources/pdf/climate/Nicholson-Cole_Representing%20Climate%20Change%20Futures.pdf.

  • Assesses the use of visualization for communicating climate change issues to the public, with reference to the broader theme of visualizing scenes of the future or 'futurescapes'.

Phillips, Brenda D. Disaster Recovery. Auerbach Publications. May 2009.

  • Tackles the myriad recovery issues faced by federal, state, and local emergency managers, public officials, and voluntary organizations in a long-term disaster recovery situation.

Regional Plan Association. Building Coastal Resilience: Using Scenario Planning to Address Uncertainty and Change. October 2013. Available at https://www.massport.com/media/266326/2013-October_Building-Coastal-Resilience.pdf

  • Provides a scenario planning framework for helping local governments and other public and private organizations interested in advancing coastal adaptation

Schoch-Spana, Monica, Crystal Franco, Jennifer B. Nuzzo, and Christiana Usenza. "Community Engagement: Leadership Tool for Catastrophic Health Events." Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 5(1). March 2007. Available at http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/bsp.2006.0036.

  • Reviews the Working Group on Community Engagement in Health Emergency Planning's recommendations to government decision makers on why and how to catalyze the civic infrastructure for an extreme health event.

Schulz, Jill. "The Road to Recovery." Planning. July 2010. Available at https://www.planning.org/planning/2010/jul/roadtorecovery.htm.

  • Explains the road to recovery in Cedar Rapids, Iowa after the devastating floods of 2008.

Schwab, James C., ed. "Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation." PAS Report, 576. 2014. Available at https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9026899/ .

  • Offers a no-nonsense explanation of the benefits — and limitations — of planning for unpredictable events.

Shaw, Alison, Stephen Sheppard, Sarah Burch, David Flanders, Amim Wiek, Jeff Carmichael, John Robinson, and Stewart Cohen. "Making local futures tangible: Synthesizing, downscaling, and visualizing climate change scenarios for participatory capacity building." Global Environmental Change, 19(4). October 2009.

  • Uses the results from a participatory scenario study on capacity building for climate change action at the local level to examine the pros and cons of the approach.

Sheppard, Stephen R.J. Visualizing Climate Change. Routledge. May 2012.

  • A guide to demonstrating climate change through visual media to communities, action groups, planners, and other experts.

Sheppard, Stephen R.J., Alison Shaw, David Flanders, Sarah Burch, Amim Wiek, Jeff Carmichael, John Robinson, and Stewart Cohen. "Future visioning of local climate change: A framework for community engagement and planning with scenarios and visualization." Futures, 43(4). May 2011.

  • Discusses how to create local-level climate change scenarios and visualizations.

Sheppard, Stephen R.J., Alison Shaw, David Flanders, and Sarah Burch. "Can visualization save the world? Lessons for landscape architects from visualizing local climate change." Digital Design in Landscape Architecture. 2008. Available at http://193.25.34.143/landschaftsinformatik-4.2.6/fileadmin/user_upload/_temp_/2008/2008_Beitraege/001/Buh_2-21.pdf.

  • Considers how visualization tools could be utilized to improve awareness of and response to climate change.

Townshend, Ivan, Olu Awosoga, Judith Kulig, and HaiYan Fan. "Social cohesion and resilience across communities that have experienced a disaster." Natural Hazards. March 2015.

  • Reports on comparative findings of cohesion and resilience indices in four Canadian rural communities that experienced disasters and evacuation in potentially different phases of coping and resilience.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scenario Planning and Smart Growth for Superstorm Sandy Recovery on Long Island. March 2015. EP-W-11-011, Task Order No. 046. Available at http://placematters.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Scenario-Planning-SmartGrowth-for-SuperstormSandyRecovery_Final-Report_March-2015.pdf

  • Provides links to tools and techniques for regional planning, recovery, and resilience and also links to engagement and communication techniques.

Walker, Doug, and Tom Daniels. The Planners Guide to CommunityViz: The Essential Tool for a New Generation of Planning. APA Planners Press and the Orton Family Foundation. 2011.

  • An authoritative and accessible guide to a tool to let planners and citizens "see" the future impacts of a plan or development.

Wells, Kenneth B., Jennifer Tang, Elizabeth Lizaola, Felica Jones, Arleen Brown, Alix Stayton, Malcolm Williams, Anita Chandra, David Eisenman, Stella Fogleman, and Alonzo Plough. "Applying Community Engagement to Disaster Planning: Developing the Vision and Design for the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Initiative." American Journal of Public Health, 103(7). July 2013. Available at http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301407.

  • A steering council used community-partnered participatory research to support workgroups in developing CR action plans and hosted forums for input to design a pilot demonstration of implementing CR versus enhanced individual preparedness toolkits.