Planning in the Face of Conflict

The Surprising Possibilities of Facilitative Leadership

By John Forester

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Bikers and hikers. Sex workers and social conservatives. Agencies and activists. The people involved in planning for a site — or a community — can be like the Hatfields and McCoys. And the process brings them together face to face and toe to toe.

How can planners take conflicted communities from passionate demands to practical solutions? Facilitative leadership offers helpful ans...

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Product Details

Page Count
328
Date Published
Sept. 1, 2013
ISBN
978-1-611901-18-4
Format
Paperback
Publisher
APA Planners Press

About the Authors

John Forester
None

Table of Contents

Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction
So What?: Listening to Learn, Solve Problems, and Plan Together
Method: Exploring Practice Stories

PART 1 BETTER GOVERNANCE WHEN INTERESTS AND VALUES CONFLICT

Chapter 1: Mediation and Collaboration in Architecture and Community Planning
Laurence Sherman, Director, IBI Group
An Early Discovery
A Big Breakthrough
A Traditional Tool for Reaching Consensus: Talking Circles
The Framework: Assess, Prepare, Facilitate, and Follow Through
Exploring Problem-Solving Capacity
Possibilities for Planners
Afterword

Chapter 2: From Conflict Generation through Consensus Building Using Many of the Same Skills
Frank Blechman, former Clinical Faculty, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University
Skills That Travel: Coalition Building
To Meet or Not to Meet: Pro-Life and Pro-Choice
Corridor Planning I
Bridging Gaps
Building Problem-Solving Capacity
Beyond Gridlock
Neutrality
Successes and Challenges
Skills for Mediators and Negotiators
Afterword

PART 2 LEARNING AND STATE POLICY MAKING

Chapter 3: Dispute Resolution Meets Policy Analysis: Native Gathering Rights on Private Lands
Peter Adler, ACCORD 3.0; past president and CEO, Keystone
The Native Hawaiian Gathering-Rights Case
"Let's Have a Study Group"
Managing Expectations
De-Emphasize Agreements, Frame Shared Questions
The Learning Curve
Checking With Constituencies
A Surprising Outcome
Choreographing Stories
Probe, Don't Presume, or Learn Before Deciding
Afterword

Chapter 4: From Nightmare to National Implications: Off-Highway Vehicle and Parks Regulation
Lisa Beutler, Executive Facilitator, Water Resources Group, MWH Americas, Inc.
Inheriting History and Assessing the Conflict
Getting Going: Convening and Reframing
Mindmapping and Agenda Setting
Education
Responding to Actual Interests
Threats to the Process
Breakthrough
Lessons
Taking the Risk to Be in a Conversation
Afterword

PART 3 LAND USE AND COMMUNITY PLANNING

Chapter 5: Creativity in the Face of Urban Design Conflict
Ric Richardson, Professor and Director, Community and Regional Planning Program, University of New Mexico
Early Impressions of Possibilities: Conflict Assessment
Building Trust, Exploring the Willingness to Meet
Learning about Interests
A Promising Strategy
Convening the Parties
Framing an Agenda and the Two-Track Process Design
Taking a Walk Together
Taking Advantage of Differing Priorities
Bringing In and Guiding Additional Expertise
Public Review
Beyond the Fixed Pie: Creating Value or Joint Gains
Managing the Drift
Afterword

Chapter 6: From Environmental to Urban to Intermunicipal Disputes
Bill Diepeven, Manager, Dispute Resolution Services, Alberta Municipal Affairs
Entry to the Field: A First Nations Environmental and Economic Development Case
From Neighborhood Disputes to City Planning Issues
Learning from a Light Rail Case
From "My Expert Versus Yours" to Joint Fact Finding
Creating a Municipal Mediation Capacity
Ensuring Municipal Ownership and Control
Creating a Track Record: Municipal Annexation Cases
Institutionalized Capacity
Possibilities for City Planners
Afterword

PART 4 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNANCE

Chapter 7: Facilitation, Ethnicity, and the Meaning of Place
Shirley Solomon, Former Chair, Skagit Watershed Council
The Swinomish Project
Planning in the Shadow of the Supreme Court's Brendale Decision
Land and Governance: Ambiguity and Safe Spaces
The Fellowship Circle Process
The Significance of Ceremony
The Challenge of Recognizing Our History in Public Processes
Ceremony as Process Design: Beyond Argument to Dialogue
Convening a Four-Day Circle Process
Taking Time to Remember, to Reconstruct Histories, and to Listen
Social Learning and Recognition
Reconciliation and Fundamental Differences
County Planning Challenges
Beginning Again
Enduring Differences, Recognizing Opportunities for Collaboration
Afterword

Chapter 8: Collaborative Civic Design in Chelsea, Massachusetts
Susan Podziba, Public Policy Mediator, Susan Podziba and Associates
Divorce, Custody, and Maintenance: Mediation in Israel
Back to Massachusetts and on to MIT
Affordable Housing and Public Disputes
The Chelsea Charter Revision Experience
Designing a Participatory Process
From Meetings to Representatives to a Draft Charter to Ratification
Afterword

PART 5 ENVIRONMENTAL AND REGIONAL PLANNING

Chapter 9: Consensus Building and Water Policy in San Antonio
John Folk-Williams, Writer/Editor, www.CrossCollaborate.com, StoriedMind.com
Background: Growth and Environmental Quality, Business and Neighborhood Interests
Getting Involved in the Case
Conflict Assessment
Early Stakeholder Meetings
Building Up the Middle To Deal With Extremes
Diverse Local Leadership
Surprises After Convening
Local Knowledge and Talent
Mediation as Policy Analysis
Shared Principles
Navigating Politics As Usual
A Solution: Studying Competing Strategies
Challenges of Closure: From the Groan Zone to "We Can Do This!"
Near Consensus: A Big Breakthrough
Reflections on Power, Process, and Politics
Afterword

Chapter 10: Facilitating the Land-Use Planning Process for Vancouver Island
Gordon Sloan, Partner, ADR Education
Beyond Either-Or Negotiation
The Mechanics of the Mediation
Working for Inclusion
Accountability to Constituencies
Preparatory Training
Gaining Power in Negotiations
Perspectives within Groups
Ceremonies of Beginning
Ground Rules
Rephrasing and Focusing Discussions
Rescuing Discussions
Mediated Negotiations as a Forgiving Process
Interest-Based Negotiations
Consensus Recommendations and Turning Points
Recognizing Adversaries
Cycles of Community Building, Resignation, and Hope
Afterword

PART 6 DEEP VALUE DIFFERENCES AND REINVENTING COMMUNITY PROBLEM SOLVING

Chapter 11: Facilitating Statewide HIV/AIDS Policies and Priorities in Colorado
Michael Hughes, Principal, Hughes Collaboration
A CDC Directive Means Change
The Ad Hoc Process
The Process Takes Off
Relationship Building and the Use of Language
Warning Signs and Stumbling Blocks
Visual Tools and the Use of Celebration
A Plan Emerges, Things Heat Up
Small Group Mediation: Morality and 14 Need Statements
The Racial Divide
Picking Up the Pieces
Time to Heal Wounds
Postscript
Afterword

Chapter 12: Activist Mediation and Public Disputes
Lawrence Susskind, Director MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program, Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Public Dispute Resolution, Not Environmental Mediation
Four Debates in Public Dispute Resolution
Frustrations and Rewards in Public Dispute Resolution
Afterword

Conclusion
Planning, Learning, and Governing Through Conflict

Works Cited in the Profiles

Discussion Questions

Reviews

"First of all, it is not about bargaining, trading, or good old-fashioned deal making. Rather, the book is centered on learning and appreciating the complexity of the interests at stake to draw up forceful and creative solutions... Skillfully capturing and steering the presumptive reader, the book moves from one story to the next, making that reader want more... This is a compelling, powerful book."
– Sebastian Boţic, Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism; full review in the Journal of the American Planning Association, Autumn 2014

Author John Forester directs graduate studies in the City and Regional Planning Department at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. In Planning in the Face of Conflict, see why his students called the profiles "the BEST teaching materials" ... "refreshing to read" ... "incredibly valuable" ... "real-world examples" ... "a great addition to the course."