Zoning as a Barrier to Multifamily Housing Development (PAS 548)

By Gerrit Knaap, Stuart Meck, FAICP, Terry Moore, FAICP, Robert Parker, AICP

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Does your code prevent the development of often-affordable multifamily housing? This report examines the relationships between zoning and housing in six metropolitan areas.

Using census and GIS data, the authors found indicators of zoning regulations and housing market performance in Boston; Miami-Dade County; Minneapolis–St. Paul; Portland; Sacramento; and Washington, D.C. They evalua...

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Product Details

Page Count
Date Published
Aug. 1, 2007
APA Planning Advisory Service

About the Authors

Gerrit Knaap
Gerrit-Jan Knaap is Professor of Urban Studies and Planning and Executive Director of the National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education at the University of Maryland. Knaap earned his B.S. from Willamette University, his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Oregon, and received post-doctoral training at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, all in economics. Knaap’s research interests include housing markets and policy, the economics and politics of land use planning, the efficacy of economic development instruments, and the impacts of environmental policy. On these subjects, Knaap has published over 60 articles in journals that include the Journal of the American Planning Association, the Journal of Urban Economics, Land Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Policy Analysis and Management; and State and Local Government Review. He received the Chester Rapkin award for the best paper published in Volume 10 of the Journal of Planning Education and Research, with Greg Lindsey he received the 1998 best of ACSP award, and in 2006 he received the Outstanding Planner Award from the Maryland Chapter of the American Planning Association. Funding for his research has been provided by the National Science Foundation, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, and numerous other federal, state, and local government agencies. Knaap is the co-author or co-editor of nine books. He currently serves on the State of Maryland’s Smart Growth Subcabinet, the Maryland Sustainable Growth Commission, and the Science and Technical Advisory Committee to the Maryland Climate Commission.

Stuart Meck
My website: http://bloustein.rutgers.edu/meck/

Terry Moore
Terry Moore, FAICP, is a founding principal, planner, and project manager at ECONorthwest, an economics and planning consulting firm. He is an adjunct professor of in the Planning, Public Policy, and Management at the University of Oregon and an affiliate researcher at the National Center for Smart Growth at the University of Maryland. He has managed over 600 projects in transportation and land-use planning, economic development, growth management, and market, feasibility, and fiscal analysis. He has written or contributed to several books and articles on these topics, including a second edition of his book "The Transportation / Land Use Connection" (American Planning Association Press) and a chapter of "Engaging the Future" (on scenario planning, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy). He has consulted and presented on planning issues in Central and South America, Europe, New Zealand, China, and Africa

Robert Parker
Bob Parker AICP, is Executive Director of the Community Service Center (CSC), Program Director of the Community Planning Workshop, and Principal of the UO Economic Development Administration University Center at the University of Oregon. Over the last 25 years, Bob has managed an average of 10 policy and planning analysis projects per year with communities and state officials throughout Oregon. Community Planning Workshop is known widely throughout Oregon as one of the state's critical policy analysis resources, connecting expertise of University faculty and students with communities and agencies. As Principal of the EDA University Center, Bob has decades of experience related to economic development – including preparation of economic development strategies, market and feasibility studies, and business plans. Bob is also a senior project director with ECONorthwest, a Portland-based economics and planning consulting firm.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Background and Research Approach

Chapter 2: Research Methods

Chapter 3: Findings
Overview of Study Area Evaluation Methodology
Study Area Selection
Indicators Used in the Study Area Evaluations
Overview of Study Area Evaluations
Boston, Massachusetts
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota
Portland, Oregon
Sacramento, California
Washington, D.C.
Statistical Analysis
Simulation Exercise: Metroscope

Chapter 4: Conclusions