Planning and Urban Design Standards

By American Planning Association

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Planning and Urban Design Standards is a comprehensive sourcebook on everything from regional plans to streetscapes. With extensive illustrations and concise explanations, the book is a quick reference focused on practical applications. It is a must-have guidebook for planning agencies, scholars, and professionals in allied fields.

The latest addition to the respected Graphic Standards Series ...

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Product Details

Page Count
Date Published
Feb. 3, 2006
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

About the Authors

The American Planning Association provides leadership in the development of vital communities by advocating excellence in planning, promoting education and citizen empowerment, and providing the tools and support necessary to meet the challenges of growth and change.

Table of Contents

Part I: Plans and Plan Making

1.Plan Making

2.Types of Plans

Comprehensive Plans • Urban Design Plans • Regional Plans • Neighborhood Plans • Downtown Plans • Corridor Plans • Redevelopment Area Plans • Transportation Plans • Housing Plans • Economic Development Plans • Community Facilities Plans • Parks and Open Space Plans • Critical and Sensitive Areas Plans • Hazard Mitigation Plans


Role of Participation • Stakeholder Identification • Surveys • Asset Mapping • Community Visioning • Charrettes • Public Meetings • Public Hearings • Computer-Based Public Participation • Facilitation • Consensus Building and Dispute Resolution

4.Planning Movements

The Landscape Tradition • Engineering Livable Cities • Garden Cities • City Beautiful • Practical Planning • Regionalism, 1910 to 1940 • Public Housing and Urban Renewal • Measuring and Modeling • Advocacy and Equity Planning • Urban Growth and Environmental Concerns • Statewide Land-Use Planning Programs • Redesigning Downtown • Renewed Neighborhoods, New Towns, and New Urbanism • New Regionalism • Environmental Justice • Sustainability • Healthy Cities and Communities

Part II: Environmental Management

1.Environmental Management Overview


Air quality • Air Sheds • Heat Islands


Hydrologic Cycle • Watersheds • Aquifers • Groundwater Movement and Recharge • Rivers and Streams • Floodplains and Riparian Corridors • River and Stream Restoration • Types of Wetlands • Wetlands Delineation • Wetlands Mitigation • Beach and Dune Systems • Estuaries, Flats, and Marshes


Soils Classification and Mechanics • Slope, Relief, and Aspect • Habitat Patches, Corridors, and Matrix • Disturbance Zones • Biodiversity Protection • Invasive Species


Flood Hazards • Erosion and Sedimentation • Hurricanes and Coastal Storms • Landslides • Sinkholes and Subsidence • Earthquakes • Wildfires • Underground Leaks • Hazardous Materials • Seiches and Tsunamis • Noise and Vibration • Multi-Hazards

Part III: Structures

1.Building Types

Residential Types • Manufactured Housing • Office Buildings • Warehouse and Distribution Facilities • Elementary, Middle, and High Schools • Fire and Rescue Stations • Police Stations • Medical Facilities


Sidewalks • Hierarchy of Streets and Roads • Street Networks and Street Connectivity • Alleys and Driveways • Vehicle Turning Radii • Traffic Calming • Pedestrian Friendly Streets • Considerations for Determining Parking Ratios • Shared Parking • Passenger Vehicle Dimensions For Parking Design • Vehicle Circulation For Parking Design • Parking Space Dimensions • Parking Lot Design • On-Street Bikeways • Multi-User Trails • Transit Planning Process • Bus Transit • Bus Rapid Transit • Rail Transit • Intermodal and Multimodal Transit Facilities • Airport and Land Use Interface • Airports: Airside • Airports: Landside


Waste Management Overview • Transfer Stations • Landfills • Incinerators • Waste Diversion • Hazardous Waste Management • Composting • Wastewater Overview • Wastewater Collection Systems • Wastewater Treatment • Natural Treatment of Wastewater • Stormwater Overview, Runoff, and Recharge • Stormwater Treatment • Stormwater Drainage and Flood Management • Water Supply • Water Treatment • Water Storage and Distribution • Water Conservation • Wireless Infrastructure Overview • Co-Location Of Wireless Equipment


Signs Generally • On-premise signs • Legal Issues In Sign Regulation

5.Parks and Open Space

Types of Parks • Greenways and Trails • Conservation Areas • Playgrounds

6.Farms and Forestry

Farms • Feedlots • Forestry

Part IV: Places and Placemaking


2.Theories of City Form

Urban Pattern Theories • Urban Morphology • Life-Cycle Model of Land-Use Change • Early Theories: Concentric Zones, Sector Theory, and Multiple Nuclei • Recent Theories: Dispersed City, Edge City, and Peripheral City

3.Places and Districts

Neighborhoods • Neighborhood Centers • Physical Structure Of Downtowns • Commercial Corridors • Historic Districts • Waterfronts • Specialty Retail Districts • Sexually Oriented Businesses • Arts Districts • Convention Center Districts • Industrial Parks • Office Parks • Main Streets

4.Development Types

Mixed-Use Development • Transit-Oriented Development • Conservation Developments • Infill Development • Hope VI

5.Design Considerations

Environmental Site Analysis • Urban Analysis • Scale and Density • Safety • Walkability • LEED • Energy-Efficient Development • Green Infrastructure • Wayfinding Systems • Streetscape

Part V: Analysis Techniques

1.Projections and Demand Analysis

Population Projections • Economic Base and Econometric Projections • Housing Needs Assessment • Parks and Open Space Needs Assessment

2.Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment • Fiscal Impact Assessment • Traffic Impact Assessment • Transit Impact Assessment • Traffic Sheds


Mapping Data Overview • Aerial Photographs • Topographic Maps • Cadastral Maps • Census Data and Demographic Mapping • Remote Sensing and Image Classification • Geographic Information Systems


Visualization Overview • Montage Visualization • Three-Dimensional (3-D) Visualization • Visual Preference Techniques

Part VI: Implementation Techniques

1.Legal Foundations

Planning Law Overview • Property Rights, Police Power, Nuisance, and Vested Rights • Due Process and Equal Protection • Freedom of Religion and Expression • Eminent Domain, Takings, and Exactions • Clean Air Act • Clean Water Act • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) • Superfund • Endangered Species Act • Safe Drinking Water Act • RCRA • Federal Transportation Laws • Federal Housing Laws • Federal Disaster Law • Other Federal Laws • State Enabling Legislation • State Environmental Policy Acts • Zoning Regulation • Subdivision Regulation • Planned Unit Development • Innovations in Local Zoning Regulations

2.Growth Management

Adequate Public Facilities and Concurrency • Urban Growth Areas • Development Impact Fees • Transfer and Purchase of Development Rights • Smart Growth Audits • Transportation and Land Use Connection

3.Preservation, Conservation, and Reuse

Open Space Preservation Techniques • Farmland Preservation • Land Evaluation and Site Assessment • Viewshed Protection • Historic Structures • Military Base Conversion • Brownfields • Rails To Trails

4.Revitalization and Economic Development

Capital Improvements Programming • Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities • Tax Increment Financing • Planned Manufacturing Districts • Redevelopment Agencies • Business Improvement Districts

5.Current Planning

Development Services • Staff Reports • Site Plan Review • Design Guidelines

6.Real Estate Development

Financing Methods and Techniques • Financial Planning and Analysis: The Pro Forma • Development and Approval Process


APA Chapters and Divisions
Planning Accreditation Board, Accredited University Planning Programs
Land-Based Classification System Graphic Symbols and Drawing Annotations APA Award-Winning Plans