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Originally published in 2009 — e-book version released in 2013.
APA's popular primer for citizens is all new! For decades, planning officials and engaged citizens have relied on The Citizen's Guide to Planning for a better understanding of the basics of planning. Now, Duerksen, Dale, and Elliott have remade this perennial bestseller into a 21st-century guide for anyone who wants to make his or her community a better place.
This book describes the land-use planning process, the key players in that process, and the legal framework in which decisions are made. The authors advocate principles and disciplines that will help those involved in the process make good decisions. In easy-to-understand language, they offer nuts-and-bolts information about different types of plans and how they are implemented. Chapters cover the goals and values of planning, the history of planning, the different people and organizations involved, the creation and implementation of a comprehensive plan, sustainability, the application review process, and legal and ethical questions.
This is a must-read book for any planning commissioner, official, or engaged citizen.
About the Authors
C. Gregory Dale, FAICP is a founding principal with McBride Dale Clarion, the Cincinnati affiliate office of Clarion Associates. Dale has nearly 30 years of planning experience. He has worked on planning projects throughout the country and has drafted or assisted with award-winning plans for Will County, Illinois; Franklin, Tennessee; and the Southern Nevada Regional Planning Commission.
Christopher J. Duerksen is the managing director of Clarion Associates, LLC, a national land-use consulting firm. He is a cofounder of the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute and has represented local governments, nonprofits, and the private sector in a variety of land-use and zoning matters.
Donald L. Elliott, FAICP is a senior consultant with Clarion Associates, LLC. His practice focuses on land planning and zoning, growth management, and international land and urban development issues. In addition to advising U.S. local governments, his practice includes planning and governance projects in Russia, Uganda, India, Indonesia, and Lebanon.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Why Plan?
Where Did Planning Come From?
Aesthetics Roots and the City Beautiful Movement
Civil Engineering and Public Health Concerns
The Municipal Reform Movement
The Social Reform Movement
The Environmental Revolution
Meeting Today's Challenges
Chapter 2: Navigating the Planning Landscape
State Law-the Starting Point
The Local Planning Landscape
The Local Legislative Body
The Planning Commission
Zoning and Other Special Boards
Special Boards and Commissions
Higher Levels of Government and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
The Local Planning System
Special Geographic Area Plans
Economic Development Plans
Public Facility Plans
Capital Improvement Plans
Parks and Recreation Plans
Pedestrian and Trail Plans 30
Open Space Plans
Natural Resource Protection Plans
Open Space Acquisition
Infrastructure Financing Tools
Strategic Utility Extensions
Characteristics of Good Local Planning Programs
Chapter 3: The Comprehensive Plan
An Overview of the Comprehensive Plan
How a Comprehensive Plan Should Be Used
Creating the Plan
Getting Off on the Right Foot-Organizing to Plan
Defining Community Values-Citizen Participation
A Strong Fact Foundation-Research and Analysis
Demographic, Housing, and Economic Analysis
Public Facility and Infrastructure Analysis
Community Character Analysis
Defining the Vision-Goals and Objectives
Bringing It All Together-Plan Recommendations
Making It Happen-Implementation and Administration of the Plan
Chapter 4: What Are We Trying to Achieve?
Typical Community Planning Values
Housing and Socioeconomic Diversity
Land Use Mix
Density and Intensity of Development
Parks and Open Space
A Healthy Natural Environment
Preserved Open Space
Community Quality and Character
A Strong Local Economy
Efficient Use of Tax Dollars
Historic and Cultural Resource Protection
Healthy Community Core
Public Health and Safety
Chapter 5: Putting the Plan to Work-Implementation
An Implementation Framework
Key Implementation Tools
Zoning Use Regulations
Adequate Public Facilities (APF) Regulations
Transfer of Development Rights
Tools Addressing the Scale, Quality, and Character of Development
Natural Resource Protection Overlays
Scenic View Protection Overlays
Tools Addressing the Impacts of Development
Transportation Impact Analysis Requirements
Land Dedication Requirements
Fiscal Impact Analysis Requirements
Development Impact Fees
Special Taxing and Assessment Districts
Tools Addressing Equity Issues
Environmental and Social Justice Tools
Property Purchases and Eminent Domain
Implementation Strategies 128
Understandable to Citizens
Chapter 6: The Plan in Action-The Application Review Process
Understanding the Review Process
Staff Review, Referrals, and Report
Public Hearings and Meetings
Recommendations and Decisions
Referendum and Initiative
Understanding the Different Types of Zoning Actions
Site Plan Approval
Zone Changes: Text and Map
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs)
Engaging in the Development Review Process
Get Involved Early
Do Your Homework
Support Your Local Plan
Deal with Facts Instead of Emotions
Focus on the Public Interest, Not Just Special Private Interests
Respect the Process and the People
If You Don't Like the Results, Get Involved
Chapter 7: The Law of Planning
The Essential Planning Powers, Where They Come from, and Their Limits
The Police Power
The Power to Tax, Raise Revenues, and Spend
The Powers Above
The Scope and Limits to Local Government Planning Powers-Judicial Review
The Taking Issue
1. What Is the Character of the Government Action?
2. Is There a Valid Public Purpose?
3. What Is the Economic Impact of the Regulation?
The First Amendment
Defensible Planning and Zoning Practice
Opportunity to Be Heard
Findings and Decisions Based on the Record
Conclusion: Being a Leader
Conflicts of Interest and Bias
Ex parte Contacts
Personal Values Balanced with Public Policy
Considering Choice and Opportunity for Disadvantaged Populations
Conclusion: Being a Leader
"The Citizen's Guide to Planning is a soup-to-nuts, highly reliable guide to any issue a citizen or trained professional is likely to encounter. Form-based zoning and takings issues? Community workshops with keyboard polling? Ethical principles for planning? They're all here. Plus, the book lives up to its title — a citizen's, not just a professional's, guide to real-life issues of planning in American communities."
Chairman of Citistates Group and columnist for the Washington Post Writers Group
"The Citizen's Guide to Planning is an invaluable resource both for professionals and laymen. It presents the fundamentals of city planning in clear, simple English: its objectives, vocabulary, techniques, and legal foundation. There is nothing better!"
President and CEO of Alex Garvin & Associates, Inc. and author of The American City: What Works, What Doesn't
"A smart, practical guide on how a community vision can be transformed into reality through thoughtful planning and implementation techniques. A must-read for all urban enthusiasts with an interest in making their neighborhood, town, or city a more engaging, sustainable, and quite simply, a more beautiful place to live, work, and play."
— Drew Becher
Executive Director, Bette Midler's New York Restoration Project
"Accessible and informative, this is an essential building block for thoughtful, inclusive and thorough planning. Its approach to developing a comprehensive action plan, navigating governmental processes, and learning from the nuances of communities will facilitate your planning and development efforts."
—Majora Carter Group