School Enrollment by Housing Type
PAS Report 210
Historic PAS Report Series
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We hope you enjoy this fascinating snapshot of a planning issue of yesteryear.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANNING OFFICIALS
1313 EAST 60TH STREET — CHICAGO 37 ILLINOIS
|Information Report No. 210||May 1966|
School Enrollment by Housing Type
Prepared by Paul Holley
In recent years, the topic of school enrollment has generated heated debate throughout suburban communities. Keeping track of the number of school-age children has always been of concern to local school boards, planning agencies, and PTAs entrusted with the task of providing sufficient school rooms and teachers and fighting for the necessary revenues. But lately the interest has reached beyond the realm of education, for school enrollment has become a gambit in the controversy over the proper composition of the community's housing. This controversy centers around the place of apartments in the suburban scheme.
Multi-family housing has experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. This is due, in part, to the baby boom of the 1940's, the offspring of which now tend to prefer apartment living. While families with children continue to prefer home ownership, young, recently married couples and elderly couples who have completed their child-rearing have increasingly chosen the convenience of renting.
Unlike housing booms in the past, today's new multi-family housing activity is not concentrated solely in the central cities. The dramatic difference between today's housing boom and former ones is the trend toward construction of apartment buildings in the suburbs. But while the building industry has embraced this new phenomenon with enthusiasm, suburban homeowners have not. Often homeowners see apartments as a threat to the integrity of their single-family neighborhoods, and a variety of arguments are therefore advanced why zoning petitions for multi-family housing should be rejected. It is claimed that today's apartments are tomorrow's slums, that apartments cut off light and air, that they reduce adjacent property values, and they change the character of the community.
Other reasons seldom voiced but probably of equal importance are: that apartments attract persons of the lower classes, that they bring in transients with no interest in the community, and that they might be rented to members of minority groups. Perhaps most damaging is the argument that apartments do not pay their own way and are a burden on community resources.
This latter argument is in accord with the conventional wisdom which holds that apartments require public services far in excess of compensating tax revenues. It also reflects the traditional view of the congested urban apartment house consisting of small crowded tenements overrun with children. Because schools represent by far the highest single item of expenditure by local governments, the strongest argument in opposition to suburban apartment construction has become the alleged over-concentration of school-age children in such units. It may be argued that this claim should not be taken at face value since it is a cover for an emotional opposition. Besides, the planning decision to permit or reject apartments should not be made on the basis of cost-revenue considerations; the purpose of planning is not to search out profitable land uses but rather to accommodate the needs of the community. Nevertheless, the impact of various land uses on community resources is of legitimate concern to the public; the public must know, among other things, the size of the school-age population, increases that can be expected from proposed housing developments, and additions to school facilities which may be required. Although the recent suburban rezoning crises have spotlighted the need for objective data relating the number of school children to housing types, the many other uses of such data should not be overlooked. In addition to school boards, the data are of benefit to planning departments, recreation agencies, housing authorities, urban renewal agencies, and private developers. An inquiry into the sources of school enrollment would therefore seem a worthwhile undertaking.
This report reviews 17 studies undertaken in 13 suburban communities and two major urban centers. While many of these studies deal primarily with apartments, all of them touch on some aspect of the school-age population as related to various housing types. The report discusses general study methodology; it comments on the housing factors which affect student population, and it summarizes the findings of the studies. Other communities may duplicate the research of these studies or, if resources are limited, use the reported findings as guidelines. The latter procedure should be adopted with caution for, as the findings themselves bear out, communities as well as individual housing developments differ considerably in their impact on school enrollment.
There are several ways to approach the study of the relationship between housing type and school-age population, and each study should be custom-made to local conditions. The ultimate purpose of the survey, the availability of data, staff time that can be devoted to analysis, and local social and housing characteristics should be considered prior to data collection. If staff time is limited, a simple data-gathering method is recommended which would, as a minimum, include the following steps:
- Enrollment cards from the files of local schools are used to locate the home addresses of students and plot them on a base map. If time is limited, a sample of the cards (e.g., every fifth card) may be pulled and recorded. The effect of private or parochial school enrollment should be considered since the proportion of nonpublic school students may vary considerably by area. These schools will usually furnish addresses if information is kept confidential.
- The number of housing units of each structural type is then estimated from U.S. Census data if the area is tracted. Sanborn Atlases, land use surveys, or building records may also be used. Housing categories used by the Bureau of the Census include single-family, duplexes, three- and four-unit structures, five- and more unit structures, and mobile homes.
- The number of students per housing unit is then calculated by the enumeration area used (census tract or block, city block, grid, or other unit). Areas of mixed housing types might be disregarded. Often the number of students per housing unit is calculated for each zoning district. As will be explained below, the advantage of this latter procedure is that the impact on the schools of a request for rezoning can be evaluated.
Since a survey technique of this type does not consider all the factors affecting the relationship of housing types to school-age population, supplementary information is needed for a more thorough analysis. Fairfax County, Virginia, for example, relies on the five-year school census required by the state, special questionnaires distributed to school children living in apartments and mobile homes, spot field checks, and the data on addresses and attendance obtained from the Board of Education. This has been a cooperative venture by the county planning agency and the school board. Mountain View, California, relies on information obtained in conjunction with an area demographic survey.
A common procedure is to use a questionnaire to obtain data on housing and population characteristics. The most relevant information would concern the following:
Housing unit characteristics: (1) number of bedrooms, particularly in multi-family units; (2) monthly rent of rental units; (3) whether ground level or upper-floor apartment units; (4) age of structure.
Occupant characteristics: (1) household income; (2) attendance at private or parochial or public schools; (3) age of children.
All of the foregoing items have been quantitatively analyzed by one or more agencies and have related the number of students to housing types. A number of other factors, however, are hard to quantify, including the tendency of families with children to cluster gregariously in certain buildings, the tendency of various racial and ethnic groups to have different attitudes regarding the proper atmosphere for child-rearing, and the tendency of building management policy to affect child occupancy. Nevertheless, these factors are significant as they may result in deviations from conclusions drawn from quantifiable data. They should therefore receive attention.
The collection and presentation of the data should be geared closely to the use which is to be made of the study. School boards, municipal officials and others have specific uses which determine in part, what data should be collected and how it may be tabulated. A study may be used by a board of education to delineate attendance districts and insure that adequate school capacities are proposed. For this purpose, the most useful information may be a tabular breakdown by elementary, junior high, and senior high school age-groups. Occasionally, studies analyze pre-school age groups in addition to the 5 to 18 year-old group in order to project future demands on school facilities.
The studies are also useful for evaluating the effects which zoning changes have on school enrollment. Such changes may be initiated either by the community, to implement a comprehensive plan, or they may be initiated by a developer who proposes a land use different from the one permitted by the present district. In either case, rezoning may change the number of students which can be expected from a given piece of land, with concomitant effects on community plans for the capacity and location of schools. Fairfax County, Virginia, for example, requires that each rezoning request includes the number of students likely to be generated under the requested zoning. These estimates help the community evaluate the effect of zoning changes on the schools. To facilitate forecasts of student population change due to rezoning, tables are often prepared indicating the number of students per acre in each zoning district. Examples are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Public School Enrollment Per Housing Unit and Net Residential Acre by Zoning District
|Zone||Type Unit||Housing Units per Acre||Students per Housing Unit||Students per Net Residential Acre|
a No density control.
b Density control in half of the area.
c Density control throughout.
Prepared from "Dwelling Unit Density, Population and Potential Public School Enrollment Yield by Existing Zoning Classification: Montgomery County, Maryland." Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, 1966, Page 2.
Students Per Housing Unit and Per Acre by Housing Types
Fairfax County, Virginia
|Zoning Districts||Units per Acre||Students per Dwelling Unit||Students per Acre|
|17,000 sq. ft.||2.0||1.08||.59||.18||.31||2.16||1.18||.36||.62|
|12,500 sq. ft.||2.5||1.08||.59||.18||.31||2.70||1.47||.45||.78|
|10,000 sq. ft.||3.5||1.08||.59||.18||.31||3.78||2.06||.63||1.09|
|Mobile home parks||10.0||.37||.23||.07||.07||3.70||2.30||.70||.70|
Statistics from "A Plan for Public Schools," Fairfax County Planning Division, Court House, Fairfax, Virginia.
Municipalities, private developers, and the public at large have used student-housing unit ratios to argue a proposed developmental net community cost or net community benefit, particularly as it accrues from apartments. Indeed, many of the studies reviewed in this report are basically cost-revenue analyses dealing specifically with multi-family housing developments and discussing the relative financial merits of such proposals. Developers have been anxious to prove that apartment developments are no burden on community resources. Homeowners, opposed to the invasion of apartments, have been equally anxious to prove financial hardship to the community. Planning departments have often been caught in the middle. It seems that the controversy over apartments has perverted school impact studies to settle issues which should be decided on other grounds. Our basic philosophy of taxation is not intended or designed to equate service costs and tax revenues from individual properties or classes of properties.
While cost-revenue analyses do not provide conclusive rezoning arguments, studies indicating a decreasing tax base per student may warn a community of forthcoming school finance difficulties. Cost-revenue studies, relating students to housing types, serve the useful purpose of alerting communities to the costs and revenues that can be anticipated from proposed developments and thus permit an over-all evaluation of the community's financial status.
An example of such a cost-revenue analysis, comparing the impact on schools of single-family homes and luxury high-rise apartments, is shown in Table 3. This table is included for purposes of illustration only; it is difficult and dangerous to generalize from any specific example such as this. While this kind of analysis may be useful in specific zoning cases, it cannot validly be used to show that apartments always produce a better balance between public revenues and costs than do single-family dwellings.
Apartment Versus Single-Family Unit School Costs for a 25-Acre Tract in Montgomery County, Maryland
|Information Surveyed||Housing Type|
|All Units||1 Bedroom||2 Bedrooms||3 Bedrooms|
|Housing Units per Acre||4.25||40.0|
|Number of Units||116||1,000||450||450||100|
|Total Students per Unit||1.00||0.213||0.012||0.263||0.891|
|Educational Costs per Student||$429||$429||$429||$429||$429|
|Total Educational Costs||$48,000||$91,400||$2,300||$50,900||$38,200|
|Educational Costs per Housing Unit||$429||$91||$51||$113||$382|
|Tax Revenues Expected per Unit*||$422||$228|
|Net Cost or Benefit per Unit||$7 cost||$137 benefit|
*Single-family units were assumed to have an average value of $30,000, while apartment units were assumed to have a value of $16,000. Property was assumed to be assessed at 55 per cent of true value at a levy of $3.455 per $100 assessed valuation. The number of students per unit was derived from surveys of a comparable 516-unit apartment project. Educational costs cover county costs only and exclude costs borne by federal and other agencies.
Table adapted from Analysis of Economic Factors: Blundon Tract Rezoning by Robert Gladstone and Associates, Washington, D. C., 1963.
Summary of Study Findings
The following discussion compares and illustrates the findings of 17 studies reviewed in this report. Essentially, these findings relate to the number of students per housing unit and per acre. Within this breakdown, however, additional factors such as the number of bedrooms per unit, rent, the size and age of buildings, and proximity to schools affect student population, especially in apartments. These factors are also discussed. A brief description of each study and its community is included in the Appendix.
Findings are most often tabulated in terms of public school students per housing unit by housing type. Figures from nine suburban studies are summarized in Table 4 (variations in reporting methods are explained in the footnotes).
Students Per Housing Unit by Housing Type
1 Figure is for 6.66 housing units per acre; higher density single-family (9.16 housing units per acre) had 0.66 students per housing unit.
2 Figure is for 21.3 housing units per acre; lower density garden apartments (14.2 housing units per acre) had 0.60 students per acre.
3 A 0.35 figure is also listed for the same density (42.50 housing units per acre). The figure is applicable to a different zoning district.
4 High-rent apartments only.
The mean values at the right of the table give a base to which individual study findings may be compared. The deviations from this mean indicate the differences in characteristics among communities. In general, single-family housing has more students per housing unit than multiple-family housing. Likewise, duplexes and townhouses appear to generate considerably more students than do apartments or mobile homes. In fact, the number of students per unit in duplex and townhouse developments approaches the number for single-family homes.
Table 5 summarizes the findings of the nine studies in terms of public school students per net residential acre. The figures presented were obtained by multiplying the data in Table 4 by a residential density (housing units per acre) deemed appropriate for each housing type. For example, an acre was assumed to accommodate 3.5 single-family housing units, 20 garden apartments, or 40 high-rise apartments. The figures indicate that little difference exists among net student density expected from single-family detached units, mobile homes, and high-rise apartments. The highest number of students per acre appears in the duplex and townhouse categories, indicating that rezoning for these uses has the greatest potential impact on school facilities.
Students Per Net Residential Acre by Housing Type
As the number of bedrooms per apartment unit increases, both the number of children per housing unit and the number of students per unit increase. Tables 6 and 7 include figures from four studies, all indicating a direct relationship. A comparison of the two tables shows that the percentage of children classified as pre-school decreases as the number of bedrooms increases; in other words, the more bedrooms, the more children, and the more children, the more likely they are to be school-age children. The North York study found that the relationships illustrated in the tables did not hold for units of more than three bedrooms. A small sample (not shown in the tables) revealed fewer students per unit in four-bedroom apartments than in three-bedroom apartments. The ratios of the Chicago Housing Authority, on the other hand, continue to increase for units with four and five bedrooms.
Number of Children Age 0 to 18 Per Unit for One-, Two-, and Three-Bedroom Apartments in Selected Communities
|Community||Children Age 0-18 per Unit|
|1 Bedroom||2 Bedroom||3 Bedroom|
|Montgomery County, Maryland, American Elevator Apartments||0.01||0.26||0.89|
|North York Twp., Ontario, "Conventional"||0.07||0.55||1.17|
|North York Twp., Ontario, "Limited Dividend"||0.34||1.40||2.32|
|Chicago Housing Authority||0.75||2.25||4.21|
Number of Children Age 5 to 18 Per Unit for One-, Two-, and Three-Bedroom Apartments in Selected Communities
|Community||Children Age 5-18 per Unit|
|1 Bedroom||2 Bedroom||3 Bedroom|
|Saint Louis County, Missouri||0.03||0.18||0.70|
|North York Twp., Ontario, "Conventional"||0.02||0.28||0.92|
|North York Twp., Ontario, "Limited Dividend"||0.09||0.60||1.48|
|Chicago Housing Authority||0.24||1.02||2.64|
Very little has been done to relate rent level to family size. Off-hand, it seems likely that such a relationship exists and that it is inverse, i.e., as the rent level increases, family size decreases. In other words, luxury apartments tend to be occupied by families with few or no school-age children while low-rent apartments are occupied by both large and small families with an average higher number of school-age children. The reason, of course, is that for low-income families low-rent apartments, often in public housing projects, may be the only housing alternative, while high-income families with children prefer single-family homes. Figure 1 compares data for apartments in "conventional" housing in North York Township, Ontario, and Saint Louis County, Missouri, "limited-dividend" low-rent housing in North York Township, and public housing in Chicago. "Conventional" housing may be defined as apartments renting for about $125 for one-bedroom units, about $135 for two-bedroom units, and about $155 for three-bedroom units. It is apparent from the graph that there is a dramatic difference in the average number of students per unit between conventional and public housing, limited-dividend housing being somewhere in the middle.
Students Per Housing Unit by Number of Bedrooms and Rent Level
The size of the apartment building as well as the size of the housing development also seems to affect the number of students per housing unit. One may speculate that families with children tend to prefer small low-rise structures and ground-level units, especially buildings which have private outside exits for each unit (such as duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, townhouses, and courts). An investigation currently in progress in Skokie, Illinois, indicates that the number of students per unit in townhouses and four-unit "co-ops" may be as high as or higher than the number in single-family detached housing.
Larger developments (not necessarily more intensive developments) may attract more children per housing unit. This was the conclusion of a New Jersey study which found that as garden apartment developments reached a size of 400 to 500 units, the proportion of children seemed to increase very sharply. However, an extensive study in St. Louis County, Missouri, attempted to document the same relationship, but found no clear-cut answer.
Age of Structure
As apartments age, the number of students per unit tends to increase. New apartment buildings usually offer appealing technological improvements and a prestige image in return for high rents. Not only do high rents attract small families, as noted previously, but the general desirability of new apartment buildings allows the owner to be highly selective in choosing tenants. Usually this means that he will discourage occupancy by families with children. As the building gets older, on the other hand, its desirability declines along with its relative rent level. This process reduces the selectivity of the owner and at the same time attracts families with children and moderate incomes who find the reduced rents within their means.
Proximity to Schools
The studies conducted in North York Township, Ontario, and Skokie, Illinois, both noted that proximity to a parochial school is a definite factor in the location of families with children attending those schools. Residences near a Roman Catholic school show a greater number of students per unit than housing farther from the school. In the area around a parochial school the percentage of the school-age population attending public school falls below the city average.
Proximity to public schools, local playlots, libraries, or transportation routes may also be significant in the location of the school-age population, but the impact of access to these facilities was not covered by any of the studies reviewed in this report.
Student Age Distribution Within Housing Types
The relative size of specific age groups within the student population varies only slightly among housing types. From 53 to 63 per cent of the students generally fall into the elementary school-age group, while 37 to 47 per cent are of junior high and high school age. Fairfax County, Virginia, however, found that only 33 per cent of the students in high-rise structures were in elementary school. This indicates that parents of elementary school children may be more hesitant to live in high-rise apartments than families with older children. The Denver study agrees by noting that the average age of children is higher in apartments than in one- and two- story courts.
It should be reiterated that the findings of the studies reviewed in this report are not easily transferable. They are peculiar to the communities and housing developments where they originated, and they are subject to influences from the various factors which were discussed. At best the findings may serve as guidelines for other communities which need a rule-of-thumb to predict the student yield from various housing types.
For rezoning decisions involving apartments, the following general guidelines are offered:
- Apartment units which are inconvenient for child-rearing tend to have few children in elementary school.
- Three-bedroom units tend to have a sizable number of children.
- The number of children per unit tends to increase as the proportion of units on the ground level is increased.
- Luxury apartments attract few students when constructed, but may be expected to attract more as the structures age.
- The community's financial return from apartments is a relatively poor basis for making a zoning decision. Instead attention should be focused on the quality of the development and the degree to which it will continue to provide suitable living accommodations for the citizens of the community in the years ahead.
Abstracts of Selected Studies of School Enrollment by Housing Type
BLOOMINGDALE, NEW JERSEY: Suburban New York borough of approximately 5,000 people.
A Garden Apartment Study was conducted by the Passaic Valley Citizens Planning Association for the Bloomingdale Planning Board in 1963. The sample included 100 garden apartment units. The number of children per unit was obtained and used to calculate cost-revenue for schools. The report concluded that a balance between one- and two-bedroom units would be most favorable for the city tax base, the developer, and potential tenants.
"Factors for Population Forecasts" is prepared periodically by the Chicago Housing Authority and considers the number of persons per unit by age grouping and by number of bedrooms per unit. Figures are obtained by a survey of predominantly high-rise, public housing structures.
A report entitled Apartment Growth in Denver: A Guide for Zoning Policy with Emphasis on the Southeast Area was completed in 1961 by the Denver Planning Office. School-age population per dwelling unit in apartments was compared with ratios for courts and single-family developments. The number of students per acre was found to be small in apartment areas.
FAIRFAX COUNTY, VIRGINIA: A rapidly growing suburban county in the Washington, D.C., area with over 350,000 population.
A biennial survey of "Student Density" is undertaken for all housing types, including mobile homes. A table of recent results is given in the 1966 County Planning Commission report titled Student Contribution from Apartments and Mobile Homes. Public school student per dwelling unit and student per acre ratios are calculated for each residential zoning classification. Figures are broken down by elementary, intermediate, and secondary school students.
FALLS CHURCH, VIRGINIA: A suburban Washington, D.C., community of 10,000 people planning for 50,000 additional housing units by 1980.
A 1962 Planning Commission report entitled Apartments: Analysis of Multiple Family Dwellings, the Prospects and Recommendations discusses cost-revenue implications of the school-age population in apartment units.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY, MARYLAND: A rapidly growing suburban Washington, D.C., county with approximately 400,000 population.
The first edition of "Dwelling Unit Density, Population, and Potential Public School Enrollment Yield by Existing Zoning Classification" was prepared in 1965 by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Tables have been prepared for Montgomery and adjacent Prince George's Counties which list students per unit and students per acre for public elementary, junior, and senior high school age groups. Rousing types are identified by zoning category.
An Analysis of Economic Factors: Blundon Tract Rezoning was prepared in 1963 by Robert Gladstone and Associates of Washington, D.C., for Carl M. Freeman Associates, Inc. This report compares luxury apartments with single-family homes and concludes that even though the former produce twice as many students per acre as single-family units, luxury units still constitute a net asset to the community's financial base.
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIFORNIA: A rapidly growing community of approximately 45,000 in the urbanized area south of San Francisco.
An analysis of 1963 and 1964 school-age population is included in Insight, a report prepared by the Planning Department. Data were derived from questionnaires sent to the study area residents as part of a survey of housing characteristics. Tables are included for children per dwelling unit in single-family, two-unit, three- or four-unit, and five- or more unit structures. Results are broken down by child age groups and zones within the survey area.
NASSAU COUNTY, NEW YORK: A suburban Long Island county with a population of 1,400,000; during the 1950's the fastest growing county in the United States.
Apartments: Their Past and Future Impact on Suburban Living Patterns, completed in 1963 by the County Planning Staff, concludes that the number of school-age children per apartment unit is extremely low.
NORTH YORK TOWNSHIP, ONTARIO, CANADA: Suburban Toronto area with an annual growth rate of over 30,000 persons.
The Board of Education prepared a thorough report entitled Township of North York High-Rise Apartments Development Study. The analysis considered variations among results for each child age group, isolated public school figures from total school enrollment, considered the effect of the number of bedrooms per unit, and described the impact of low rent level on the number of children per housing unit, The study concludes that the number of bedrooms, management restrictions on child occupancy, proximity to schools, rent level, and age of structure all influence the number of children per unit.
OAK PARK, ILLINOIS: An established Chicago suburban community of over 50,000 population with approximately 50 per cent of the housing units in multi-family structures.
Information Bulletin No. 35, Type of Residence of Elementary School Children, prepared by the Department of Planning and Development, categorizes residences of school-age children and single-family) two-family, multi-family (more than two units per structure), or mixed (where more than one housing type exists on the block). The size of the apartment unit) number of bedrooms, and proximity to a parochial school influenced the number of children per unit.
PARK RIDGE, ILLINOIS: Suburban Chicago community of approximately 35,000 population with predominately single-family homes.
A report entitled Land Use and Schools: A Study of Current Relationships for Park Ridge, Illinois, was prepared in 1964 by the Assistant City Manager. The survey was compiled from questionnaires sent to public school students in grades 1 through 8. Findings include the number of students per housing unit for each housing type, assessed valuation per pupil for each housing type, and a breakdown of student population by age group and number of bedrooms for each housing type. The average student in apartments or townhouses was found to be younger than the average student in duplex or single-family detached homes. The typical single-family unit consisted of three bedrooms with two children, one of which was a pupil in grades I through 8.
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA: Suburban area only.
An October 1961 Urban Land article, "High-Rent Apartments in the Suburbs," cited statistics pertaining to school-age population in medium-rent, low-rise, medium-rent garden apartments, and high-rent high-rise developments. The article generally concludes that the percentage of the school-age population attending public school varies inversely with rentals and intensity of development.
ST. LOUIS COUNTY, MISSOURI: Suburban St. Louis area.
Tenants in over 6,000 multi-family housing units were surveyed by the county planning staff in 1965. Results were published in Multi-Family Housing in Saint Louis County. A thorough investigation was made of the influence on the school-age population of the number of bedrooms, size of development, and rent level. Relevant findings from other studies were discussed. Although the units built prior to 1960 were analyzed separately from those built after 1960, little difference was evident in the results.
SKOKIE, ILLINOIS: Suburban Chicago community of approximately 60,000 with a significant number of townhouse and low-rise multi-family structures.
A study of School District 68 entitled A Study of the Effect of Zoning on Pupil Enrollment and Financial Support was prepared in 1960 by the Board of Education. The analysis showed that net school costs per unit in townhouse and four-unit co-op zoning districts were higher than in districts for other housing types. Another study is now underway by the Village Planning Department to investigate changes in the local situation during the past few years and to analyze the effects of housing type directly rather than relying on zoning to indicate land use.
STAMFORD, CONNECTICUT: City of 100,000 population within 30 miles of New York City.
An article, "Cost-Revenue Implications of High-Rise Apartments," in Urban Land, February 1963, concluded that high-rise apartments produce "surplus" revenue because they attract young families without school-age children and older families whose children have completed their public schooling. More than 100 units were surveyed.
American Society of Planning Officials. Apartments in the Suburbs. Planning Advisory Service Information Report No. 187. Chicago, Illinois. 1964. 28 pp.
Babcock, Richard F., and Bosselman, Fred P. "Suburban Zoning and the Apartment Boom." University of Pennsylvania Law Review, No.8, 1963. pp. 1040–1091.
Board of Education of Cook County School District No. 68. Study of the Effect of Zoning on Pupil Enrollment and Financial Support of a Public School. Skokie, Illinois. 1960. 9 pp.
Board of Education for the Township of North York. Township of North York High-Rise Apartments Development Study. Willowdale, Ontario. 1965. 48 pp.
Bucks County Planning Commission. Multiple- Family Housing. Falls Township Planning Commission, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 1959. 12 pp.
City Planning Department. Insight. Mountain View, California. 1964. 69 pp.
Clark, William H. "Apartments and Local Taxes." New Jersey Municipalities. No.7, 1963. Pp. 17–21.
Chicago Housing Authority. "Factors for Population Forecasts." Chicago, Illinois. 1965. 1 p.
Del Guidice, Dominic. "Cost-Revenue Implications of High-Rise Apartments." Urban Land, No. 2, 1963. pp. 3–5.
Denver Planning Office. Apartment Growth in Denver: A Guide for Zoning Policy with Emphasis on the Southeast Area. 1961. 43 pp.
Department of Planning and Development, Village of Oak Park, Illinois. Type of Residence of Elementary School Age Children. Information Bulletin No. 35. 1965. 3 pp.
Fairfax County Planning Division. Student Contribution from Apartments and Mobile Homes. Fairfax, Virginia. 1966. 5 pp.
Falls Church Planning Office. Apartments: Analysis of Multiple Family Dwellings, the Prospects and Recommendations. Falls Church, Virginia. 1962. 19 pp.
Gressman, Howard J. "Apartments in Community Planning: A Suburban Area Case Study." Urban Land, No. 1, 1966. pp. 3–6.
Hetrick, Charles B. Residential Land Use and Schools: A Study of Current Relationships for Park Ridge, Illinois. City of Park Ridge, Illinois. 1964. 18 pp.
Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. "Dwelling Unit Density, Population and Potential Public School Enrollment Yield by Existing Zoning Classification for Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties." Silver Spring, Maryland. 1965. 3 pp.
Melamed, Anshel. "High-Rent Apartments in the Suburbs," Urban Land, No. 10, 1961. pp. 1, 3–8.
Mills, Raymond W. "Apartments and Taxes." Speech delivered at the Northwestern University Law School, January 9, 1964.
Nassau County Planning Commission. Apartments: Their Past and Future Impact on Suburban Living Patterns. 75 pp. Mineola, Long Island, New York. 1963.
Passaic Valley Citizens Planning Association. Garden Apartment Study. Bloomingdale Planning Board, Bloomingdale, New Jersey. 1963. 24 pp.
Robert Gladstone and Associates. Analysis of Economic Factors: Blundon Tract Rezoning. Carl M. Freeman Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. 1963. 16 pp.
Saint Louis County Planning Commission. Multi-Family Housing. St. Louis County, Missouri. 1965. 53 pp.
"School Children and Housing Types," Florida Planning and Development, No. 10, 1965. P. 10.
Skokie, Illinois, Department of Community Development. Letter to American Society of Planning Officials, March 8, 1966.
Copyright, American Society of Planning Officials, 1966.