Advocating For Zoning Reform

Antiquated zoning laws are negatively impacting communities and effectively crippling housing choices by limiting opportunities, reinforcing segregation, driving up the cost of housing, and unfairly favoring single-family, low-density housing. It's even contributing to worsening the climate crisis. Fixing this development tool is imperative as planners work to bridge the racial wealth gap and increase economic opportunity for all.

APA supports zoning code reform to ensure communities can provide residents with greater housing choices at lower costs. Overhauling outdated local and state codes that set parking minimums, restrict multifamily housing options in certain neighborhoods, and prohibit innovative solutions like accessory dwelling units (ADUs) are problematic and should change. As communities and states take fresh looks at broken growth tools, planners can be champions for improving local rules using good plans to drive real change.

Zoning Overhaul Needed for Equitable Development

See how planners, APA, and its partners are working to advance zoning reform from the federal level to the local level.

Federal Action

Pushing for incentives for code reform is atop planners' federal agenda in 2022. With APA's help, planners are making inroads in both parties on legislation that would deliver assistance to planners working to build political will for change.

  • APA was one of 250 organizations supporting the reintroduction of the bipartisan Yes in My Backyard (YIMBY) Act that encourages communities to play a constructive role in solving the housing crisis. Recognizing and eliminating discriminatory housing policies - zoning and density restrictions, onerous parking requirements, and other regulations - is an essential first step in decreasing barriers to new housing of all price levels.
  • The bipartisan Housing Supply and Affordability Act — which APA helped craft — would give planners and communities access to new funding and technical assistance to overhaul local rules that continue to stymie housing supply and availability.
  • APA endorses Rep. Scott Peters' Build More Housing Near Transit Act, which better positions planners to coordinate transit, housing, jobs, and land use.

For additional resources, check out APA's Housing Policy Guide, which identifies policy solutions to address dire housing challenges including accessibility, affordability, and availability.

State Action

  • Oregon - with support from APA Oregon and others - initiated the largest rollback to parking requirements in US history, making it easier and less costly to develop more and better housing options in amenity-rich neighborhoods.
  • Massachusetts passed a zoning reform bill that updates the state's land use law, in which APA Massachusetts Chapter among other allies has worked for years to advance zoning reform.
  • In Connecticut, Governor Ned Lamont signed bill HB 6107 into law, marking a months-in-the-making victory for zoning reform. Working with the broad-based Desegregate Connecticut coalition, planning advocates from the APA Connecticut Chapter were instrumental in securing this landmark accomplishment and continue to lead the legislative fight for equitable zoning reform.
  • Maine became the third state to eliminate single-family zoning.

Local Action

Action has been taking place across cities, including:

  • Minneapolis was the first major city in the U.S. to eliminate single-family zoning.
  • Raleigh, North Carolina is following the national trend on zoning reform becoming one of the latest communities to approve duplexes and townhomes without special permitting and reduce high parking minimums.
  • Spokane, Washington voted unanimously to build duplexes, triplexes, and fourplexes citywide.

Top Image: Kubrak78/E+/

About the Authors
Emily Pasi is APA's Public Affairs Manager. Roberta Rewers is APA's Communications Manager.

May 20, 2021

By Emily Pasi, Roberta Rewers