Cities as Emergent Systems: Race as a Rule in Organized Complexity

Environmental Law, 40(2): 551-597, 2010

By: Environmental Law
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Social Equity

This article challenges the assumption that cities are chaotic and unmanageable in order to push for political and legal action around environmental justice. It argues that cities are certainly complex systems, but that they can be understood to reveal the roots of environmental injustices. It shares a case study from Baltimore to show how theoretical patterns can be applied to better understand the inequitable distribution of people and environmental hazards in cities.