Parking Management Best Practices

Zoning Practice — June 2009

By Todd Litman


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Until recently, most planners assumed that — as much as possible — parking should be abundant and free. Planning focused primarily on maximizing supply by applying generous minimum requirements and public subsidies of parking facilities. But there is growing realization that this approach can be harmful and that alternative management solutions are often better overall.

Parking management refers to policies and programs that result in more efficient use of parking resources. There are more than two dozen parking management strategies that, when appropriately applied, can significantly reduce the parking supply required in a particular situation and provide other economic, social, and environmental benefits.

This issue of Zoning Practice describes how to adjust parking planning practices to take advantage of management solutions to significantly reduce the parking supply and provide co-benefits.


Page Count
Date Published
June 1, 2009
Adobe PDF
American Planning Association

About the Author

Todd Litman
Todd Litman is founder and executive director of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute (, an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transport problems. His work helps expand the range of impacts and options considered in transportation decision-making, improve evaluation methods, and make specialized technical concepts accessible to a larger audience. His research is used worldwide in transport planning and policy analysis. Mr. Litman has worked on numerous studies that evaluate transportation costs, benefits and innovations. He authored "Parking Management Best Practices," a comprehensive book on innovative management solutions to parking problems; the "Online TDM Encyclopedia," a comprehensive Internet resource for identifying and evaluating mobility management strategies; and "Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates and Implications," a comprehensive study which provides cost and benefit information in an easy-to-apply format; and Mr. Litman has worked as a research and planning consultant for a diverse range of clients, including government agencies, professional organizations, developers and nongovernment organizations. He has worked in more than two dozen countries, on every continent except Antarctica.