Driving Growth Through Transit-​Oriented Development

Zoning Practice — August 2004

By Hank Dittmar, Ellen Greenberg, FAICP


ZP subscriber
List Price
Sign In & Download

Not a member but want to buy a copy? You'll need to create a free My APA account to purchase. Create account

Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been a planning buzzword for over a decade. The notion of lively, walkable places near transit appeals to many, as does the prospect of improving transit performance, reducing congestion, and reducing the amount of time busy families spend in the car.

Building high-performing TOD has proven to be difficult, though, and many of the first generation of such projects turned out to be transit-adjacent rather than transit-oriented. The reasons for these results boil down to the lack of a well-defined implementation path for these projects, and the lack of performance-based definitions.

This issue of Zoning Practice defines multiple terms related to planning for TOD and discusses lessons learned from TOD design and how zoning can be effectively used as a tool in shaping successful TOD projects.


Page Count
Date Published
Aug. 1, 2004
Adobe PDF
American Planning Association

About the Authors

Hank Dittmar
London, ENG, United Kingdom

Ellen Greenberg, FAICP
Ellen Greenberg is Deputy Director for Sustainability at the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), leading the Department’s work in areas including advancing zero emission vehicles, reducing vehicle miles traveled, and progressing toward transportation equity. Ellen has over 30 years’ experience working with cities, transportation agencies and non-governmental organizations to guide transportation, development, and conservation decisions. Prior to joining Caltrans, Ellen was a Principal at Arup, working in San Francisco and London on major urban planning and infrastructure projects. Ellen holds a BA in geography, a Master’s in City Planning and a Master’s in Transportation Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Ellen is a Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners.