Incentive zoning has received renewed attention as communities implement smart growth principles into planning and development processes. Incentive zoning allows a developer to build a larger, higher-density project than would be permitted under existing zoning. In exchange, the developer provides something that is in the community's interest that would not otherwise be required (e.g., open space, plazas, arcades, etc.)
The common types of community benefits or amenities for which state and local governments have devised incentive programs are urban design, human services (including affordable housing), and transit access. This report provides historical perspective, summarizes state enabling legislation, and describes the key substantive and legal issues local governments must address in crafting such regulations.
Case studies from Arlington County, Virginia; Minneapolis; and Seattle demonstrate how incentives can be used to achieve smart growth objectives. The report also provides principles to guide model legislation for zoning and affordable housing incentives.
Table of Contents
1. Historical perspective and statutory overview
2. Incentive zoning for design and smart growth
Establishing the purposes • Selecting the desired amenities • Determining bonuses to be granted • Administering bonus programs • Case studies • Critiques of incentive programs and legal issues
3. Zoning incentives for affordable housing
California • New Jersey • Oregon • Florida • Conclusions
List of References
Premium bonus provisions in the Minneapolis, Minnesota zoning code • Draft of a model incentive zoning statute • Excerpts from the American Planning Association Policy Guide on Housing