- Most hazards pose immediate dangers.
- Tornado warnings inform us that we need to take shelter in a matter of minutes, not hours.
- Hurricane warnings may give us hours, but evacuation can chew up precious time before the storm arrives.
- Some hazards, most notably earthquakes, permit almost no warning whatsoever.
Drought is different. Drought is in that rare category of slow-onset disasters in which it is notoriously difficult even to decide when a drought has begun, how long it will last, and what the ultimate consequences may be.
At what point does a persistent lack of precipitation become a crisis?
Given this slow onset, it is small wonder that droughts have typically received less attention from emergency managers and planners than floods and wildfires. That lack of attention does not reduce their overall impact, however.
The National Climatic Data Center reports that there have been 15 droughts from 1980 to 2009 that have resulted in $185.2 billion in damages. One need look no farther than Texas in the summer of 2011 to see the impact that severe drought can have on a region's economy, health, and public safety. In that case, we also saw that one hazard — drought — can lead to others, such as the massive wildfires made possible by the hot, dry conditions that prevailed throughout much of the state. Nature added insult to injury.
But we need not be unprepared. Drought can provide a focal point for planning for adaptation to climate change in many inland areas, and climate change may well be a factor in some instances of drought. As average temperatures rise, more frequent and intense droughts may be expected in some areas, particularly those with already arid climates. It is a challenge that requires effective water management planning and conservation to ensure the safety and well-being of affected communities.
NOAA's Climate Program Office and Sector Applications Research Program previously funded a "Drought Ready Communities" project with a planning resources kit, ending in the summer of 2010 with "A Guide to Community Drought Preparedness." The need now is to connect those resources with the routine planning practices of local, regional, and state governments by integrating such concerns into all aspects of the local planning process.
By examining best practices, by facilitating a meaningful discussion between practicing planners and scientific experts such as climatologists, and by using dissemination methods familiar to most professional planners, APA can help move that process forward substantially.
Planning and Drought
PAS Report 574
Planning and Drought helps planners, public agencies, and local officials see the crisis on the horizon and get ready to meet it. This resourceful guide connects the dots between drought and land-use planning, water management, public health, and the local economy. This PAS report was produced in conjunction with the University of Nebraska's National Drought Mitigation Center and the National Integrated Drought Information System.
On February 12, 2014, APA Hazards Planning Research Center Manager Jim Schwab presented an hour-long webinar on Planning and Drought hosted by NIDIS and NDMC.
This symposium is part of a project undertaken by APA in cooperation with the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, and with the National Integrated Drought Information System, to produce a Planning Advisory Service Report on drought mitigation and preparedness and how communities can use planning to become more resilient in the face of drought.
Invited participants focused on helping APA to define the appropriate audiences and central issues for the project, delineate the guiding principles in planning for drought resilience, refine the outline for the PAS Report, and identify criteria for best practices and potential case examples to study.
Over the course of the symposium, participants highlighted the importance of reaching beyond the planning community and engaging a wide range of stakeholders in planning for drought resilience. They began by attempting to define what makes a community drought resilient.
Defining the Audience
During the first discussion of symposium, participants suggested the following potential audiences for the PAS report:
- Local planners (urban and rural)
- Local water agency and utilities
- Public health officials
- Emergency management community
Impacts of Drought
During the next discussion of the symposium, participants offered the following impacts as those that should be addressed by the project and final report:
- Water supply
- Increased wildfire
- Public health
- Economic losses
- Water quality
- Recreation and parks
- Water infrastructure
Next, participants discussed proactive planning actions to mitigate impacts:
- Set regulations and policies to maintain water supply
- Incorporate drought with wildfire protection planning
- Utilize public health resources
- Identify potential economic impact
- Water quality management
- Manage water infrastructure
- Assess and analyze energy impacts
After identifying impacts and action steps, participants discussed the following as guiding principles for the final report:
- Risk assessment
- Monitoring and information system
- Integration of drought into planning process
- Inclusionary stakeholder involvement
- Collaborative framework
- Resilience, variability, and sustainability
- Plan quality (module and stand alone)
Structure of the Report
Next, participants offered the following reactions to the draft outline for the final report:
- Include cross-disciplinary glossary.
- See notes for more bullet points
- Make it clear that drought is complex yet manageable
- Cover the dimensions of resiliency and variability
- Identify stakeholders
- Discuss data management and other tools available
Best Practices Examples
In the final discussion of the symposium, participants suggested the following ideas, principles and approaches that should be highlighted by specific case examples:
- Indianapolis, Indiana (integrated drought as component to other plans)
- Phoenix, Arizona (statistical analysis scenarios in general plan; conjunctive management)
- Denver, Colorado (good drought plan but may not be well integrated)
- San Antonio, Texas (regional water alliance)
- Athens-Clarke, Georgia (documented process of Water Conservation Committee; county commissioner and mayor as champions)
- Colorado State
- Archuleta, Colorado (state vulnerability index; hazard mitigation)
- City of Boulder, Colorado (integrated water supply plan; used historical record to develop plan)
- Potomac Delaware River Basin Commission Director Joe Bauchman (drought simulation planning; champion)
- Tampa Bay Water Utility, Tampa Bay, Florida (example of conjunctive use of multiple water sources including seawater desalination)
- California Best Practices (Redwood City, West Riverside County, Santa Cruz)
- Hualapai, Arizona (tribal example; tourism and recreation)
- Cheyenne River / Sioux
- Atlanta, Georgia
- Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River National Quality Assessment Program
- Colorado State (outreach best practices; water conservation board)
- California State (logos, mascots, open public messages)
- Decatur, Illinois (identified triggers)
- Las Vegas, Nevada (landscaping programs)
- Rhode Island Water Management Plan (references drought)
- International Examples (Murray Island Basin, Australia)
APA and FEMA invited seven professionals, from various professional backgrounds, with extensive experience in drought planning and water management issues to participate in the scoping symposium.
Bill Barker, AICP
Rand Frahm, AICP
Marilyn Hall, AICP
Jim Holway, FAICP
National Drought Mitigation Center
National Drought Mitigation Center
Kelly Helm Smith
National Drought Mitigation Center
National Integrated Drought Information System
Roger S. Pulwarty
Bill Klein, AICP
Erin Musiol, AICP
Suzanne Rynne, AICP
Jim Schwab, AICP
Primer: What Is Drought?
Hayes, M.J., Brian D. Wardlow, Mark D. Svoboda, Tsegaye Tadesse, and Kelly H. Smith. 2009. "Sharpening the Focus on Drought — New Monitoring and Assessment Tools at the National Drought Mitigation Center." Earthzine. March 30. Available at www.earthzine.org/2009/03/30/sharpening-the-focus-on-drought-%E2%80%93-new-monitoring-and-assessment-tools-at-the-national-drought-mitigation-center/
Pulwarty, R., D. Wilhite, D. Diodato, and D. Nelson, 2007. "Drought in changing environments — Creating a Roadmap, Vehicles and Drivers." Natural Hazards Observer. May 07. Available at www.colorado.edu/hazards/o/archives/2007/may07/drought.html
Wilhite, D.A. 2006. "Drought Monitoring and Early Warning: Concepts, Progress and Future Challenges." Geneva: World Meteorological Organization. WMO No. 1006. Available at www.wamis.org/agm/pubs/brochures/WMO1006e.pdf
This booklet explains the various concepts and challenges of drought monitoring and early warning systems as part of WMO's implementation activities for the International Year of Deserts and Desertification. This booklet also details the considerable progress that has been made on these issues in some drought-prone countries by highlighting several case studies from around the world.
Planners' Role in Drought Mitigation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency and American Water Works Association. 2010. "When every drop counts: protecting public health during drought conditions — a guide for public health officials." Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Docs/When_Every_Drop_Counts.pdf
This publication is intended to assist public health officials, practitioners, and other stakeholders in their efforts first to understand and then to prepare for drought in their communities. It provides information about how drought affects public health, recommends steps to help mitigate the health effects of drought, identifies future needs for research and other drought-related activities, and provides a list of helpful resources and tools.
Hayes, M.J., O. Wilhelmi, and C.L. Knutson. 2004. "Reducing Drought Risk: Bridging Theory and Practice." Journal of Natural Hazards Review 5(2): 106-113. Available at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/pdf/10.1061/%28ASCE%291527-6988%282004%295%3A2%28106%29
A simplified, flexible framework for conducting a drought risk analysis is presented. This framework is intended to be a practical, action-oriented model to assist drought planners on a variety of political and geographic scales.
Jacobs, Katharine L., Gregg M. Garfin, and Barbara J. Morehouse, "Climate Science and Drought Planning: the Arizona Experience." Journal of American Water Resources Association 41(2):437-446. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03747.x/abstract
The Arizona Governor's Drought Task Force focused on limiting the economic and social impacts of future droughts through enhanced adaptation and mitigation efforts. The plan was designed to maximize the use of new, scientific breakthroughs in climate monitoring and prediction and in vulnerability assessment. Stakeholder engagement and decision support are key objectives in reducing Arizona's vulnerability in light of the potential for severe, sustained drought.
Knutson, C. L. 2008. "The role of water conservation in drought planning." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 63(5). Available at www.jswconline.org/content/63/5/154A.refs
The survey found that the nation's capacity for storing surface water is limited, groundwater is being depleted, growing populations and pressures to keep water in-stream for fisheries and the environment are placing new demands on the freshwater supply, and the potential effect of climate change creates additional uncertainty about future water availability.
Lawrimore, J., R. Heim, M. D. Svoboda, V. Swail, and P. J. Englehart. 2002. "Beginning a New Era of Drought Monitoring Across North America." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 83 (8):1191-1192. Available at http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083%3C1191%3ABANEOD%3E2.3.CO%3B2
Since its inception in 1999, the U.S. Drought Monitor (DM) has been extremely successful in assessing and communicating the state of drought in the U.S. on a weekly basis. The new drought monitoring program is part of a broader effort to improve the monitoring and assessment of climate extremes across the continent through a cooperative effort that was established in 2001 among the three countries.
Svoboda, M.D., D. LeComte, M.J. Hayes, R. Heim, K. Gleason, J. Angel, B. Rippey, R. Tinker, M. Palecki, D. Stooksbury, D. Miskus, and S. Stevens. 2002. "The Drought Monitor. An Integrated Approach to Water Supply Assessment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 83 (8):1181-1190. Available at http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0477%282002%29083%3C1181%3ATDM%3E2.3.CO%3B2
The Drought Monitor was started in spring 1999 in response to a need for improved information about the status of drought across the United States. The Drought Monitor process also illustrates the creative use of Internet technologies to disseminate authoritative information about drought and to receive regional and local input that is in turn incorporated into the product.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Growing Toward More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development Infrastructures, and Drinking Water Policies." January. Available at www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/growing_water_use_efficiency.pdf
This report focuses on the nexus between water and growth. Part I summarizes the challenges of meeting demand for safe drinking water. Part II asks: "Is there a way to accommodate growth that minimizes its effects on water consumption and distribution costs?" Part III asks: "What water policies can support this type of growth?"
UNISDR/NDMC. 2009. "Drought Risk Reduction Practices: Contributing to the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action." 2nd ed. Geneva: United Nations Secretariat for the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Available at www.disasterriskreduction.net/fileadmin/user_upload/drought/docs/
In order for planners and the public to implement effective mitigation and preparedness measures to reduce drought impacts, they have to understand drought's evolution, complexity, social implications and people's vulnerability. To this end, wide-ranging and well-coordinated efforts at international, regional, and national levels are needed to build drought-resilient communities and societies.
Wilhite, D.A., and C.L. Knutson. 2008. "Drought Management Planning: Conditions for Success." Options Méditerranéennes. Series A (80):141-148. Available at www.iamz.ciheam.org/medroplan/a-80_OPTIONS/Sesion%202/(141-148)%2021%20Wilhite%20GS2.pdf
Drought mitigation planning is directed at building the institutional capacity necessary to move away from this crisis management paradigm. This change is a gradual process that requires changes in government policies and human behavior. Developing improved drought monitoring and early warning systems in support of drought preparedness planning and policy is an urgent need for all drought-prone counties.
Wilhite, D.A., M.D. Svoboda, and M.J. Hayes. 2007. "Understanding the Complex Impacts of Drought: A Key to Enhancing Drought Mitigation and Preparedness." Water Resources Management 21(5):763-774. Available at http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11269-006-9076-5
No national drought impact database exists and drought impact statistics are not routinely compiled at the state, regional, or national level. The National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln is addressing this problem by creating a web-based Drought Impact Reporter (DIR).
Wilhite, D.A., et al. 2007. "Managing Drought: A Roadmap for Change in the United States, a Conference Report from Managing Drought and Water Scarcity in Vulnerable Environments, Geological Society of America." September 2006. Available at www.geosociety.org/meetings/06drought/roadmap.pdf
Drought Mitigation Planning Tools and Resources
American Association of State Climatologists
The American Association of State Climatologists offers on their website the Climate Service Catalog, an ongoing effort to document the online climate-related services provided by AASC members. The services provided by the state climate offices are the primary focus, but online climate tools of interest to the public offered by other membership and partners (including the regional climate centers, NCDC, and other NOAA agencies) are also listed.
The American Water Resources Association (AWRA)
The American Water Resources Association is a nonprofit professional association dedicated to water resources management, research, and education. It is the professional home of a wide variety of water resources experts including engineers, educators, foresters, biologists, ecologists, geographers, managers, regulators, hydrologists, and attorneys.
The American Water Works Association (AWWA)
AWWA is the authoritative resource on safe water, providing knowledge, information, and advocacy to improve the quality and supply of water in North America and beyond. AWWA advances public health, safety, and welfare by uniting the efforts of the full spectrum of the water community.
The Drought Monitor
From the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the monitor provides a "big picture" perspective of conditions across the nation. The site offers a synthesis of multiple indices and impacts that represents a consensus of federal and academic scientists attempting to track drought.
Drought Impact Reporter
Comprehensive national database of drought impacts launched by the National Drought Mitigation Center in July 2005. It allows producers to report concerns and impacts such as crop loss, livestock loss or need to sell, fish kills, dry wells, and community water supply challenges.
Drought Risk Atlas (forthcoming)
Understanding the history of drought in a given area can help producers make better management decisions. The Drought Risk Atlas provides users with a comprehensive, site-specific assessment of the history, frequency, intensity, duration, and patterns of drought in the past century.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on 7-day average streamflow measured at long-term gaging stations and compares them with normal flows.
The National Climatic Data Center
NCDC provides graphs showing time series of precipitation, temperature, and SPI and PDSI at the climate division level.
National Drought Mitigation Center
The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), established at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln helps people and institutions develop and implement measures to reduce societal vulnerability to drought, stressing preparedness and risk management rather than crisis management. The center produces drought monitoring tools and information to help people assess drought severity and impacts:
NDMC Directory of Drought and Management Plans
The National Drought Mitigation Center maintains a database of drought and management plans for states, watersheds, tribes, counties, and cities.
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service (NWS) Drought Impact Statements demonstrate how drought is communicated between NWS officials and the public.
NOAA – Climate Services Portal
NOAA's Climate Services Portal's (NCS Portal) goal is to become the "go-to" website for NOAA's climate data, products, and services for all users. Currently under development, the expectation over time is to make all of NOAA's climate datasets available via the NCS Portal. At this time, the focus is on developing the infrastructure and capacity to showcase a wide breadth of climate information to the portal's users.
NOAA – Regional Climate Centers
NOAA's Regional Climate Centers seek to provide timely production and delivery of useful climate data, information and knowledge for decision makers and other users at the local, state, regional, and national levels.
NIDIS Drought Portal
The U.S. Drought Portal is part of the interactive system to:
- Provide early warning about emerging and anticipated droughts
- Assimilate and quality control data about droughts and models
- Provide information about risk and impact of droughts to different agencies and stakeholders
- Provide information about past droughts for comparison and to understand current conditions
- Explain how to plan for and manage the impacts of droughts
- Provide a forum for different stakeholders to discuss drought-related issues
Oklahoma Climatological Survey – Climate Information Group
Climate trend information for temperature and precipitation is available by state climate division.
The Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program
SCIPP is a climate research initiative whose goal is to help communities better plan for weather and climate-related disasters in the southern United States. Focusing on the six-state study region of Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi, SCIPP concentrates on the high frequency of hazardous climatological events that plague the region including extremes in precipitation (droughts and floods) as well as other hazards including severe storms and hurricanes.
U.S. Global Change Research Program
The USGCRP will work with Roundtable on Climate Information and Services under the National Science and Technology Council to develop a common definition of climate service, examine national assets, and provide a roadmap of how the federal government can provide climate services in a coordinated way.
Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI)
VegDRI, is a bi-weekly depiction of vegetation stress across the contiguous United States. VegDRI is a fine resolution (1-km2) index based on remote sensing data, but unlike other satellite-based measurements, VegDRI also incorporates climate and biophysical data to determine the cause of vegetation stress. It covers all states in the lower 48. Development of the VegDRI map and associated products is a joint effort by the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), the U.S. Geological Survey's National Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC). More information and maps may be found at http://gisdata.usgs.net/website/Drought_Monitoring/.
Cody, Betsy A., Judy Schneider, Mary Tiemann, and Grace Relf. 2012. "Selected Federal Water Activities: Agencies, Authorities, and Congressional Committees." A Congressional Research Project Report for Congress. August 17. Available at www.joss.ucar.edu/events/2012/drought_forum/Report_selected.pdf
Congress has enacted hundreds of federal laws affecting the nation's water resources and continues to address numerous water-related issues annually. This report covers four general areas: (1) "Water Resources Development, Management, and Use"; (2) "Water Quality, Protection, and Restoration"; (3) "Water Rights and Allocation"; and (4) "Research and Planning."
Folger, Peter, Betsy A. Cody, and Nicole T. Carter. 2012. "Drought in the United States: Caused and Issues for Congress." A Congressional Research Project Report for Congress. August 15. Available at http://drought.unl.edu/Portals/0/docs/Drought%20in%20the%20US%20Causes%20and%20Issues%20for%20Congress.pdf
This report describes the physical causes of drought, drought history in the U.S., and policy challenges related to drought. It also provides examples of recurrent regional drought conditions.
Best Practices Checklist / Guides
American Water Works Association. 2011. "M. 60 Drought Preparedness and Response." Available for purchase at http://apps.awwa.org/ebusmain/OnlineStore/ProductDetail.aspx?ProductId=26750
Manual M60 will help water managers facing water shortages by illustrating how to employ tried-and-true strategies and tactics of drought mitigation, as well as new tools and methods. The manual provides a proven, seven-step process to anticipate and respond to water shortages through a structured planning process.
Banking on Green: A Look at How Green Infrastructure can Save Municipalities Money and Provide Economic Benefits Community-Wide. April 2012. A joint report by American Rivers, the Water Environment Federation, the American Society of Landscape Architects and ECONorthwest. Available at www.asla.org/uploadedFiles/CMS/Government_Affairs/Federal_Government_Affairs
This report focuses on stormwater management. It's not intended to be an academic or technical document, but instead to be an "easy to read" compendium of current experiences, analysis, and knowledge.
Environmental Protection Agency, New England. 2009. "Managing Stormwater with Low Impact Development Practices: Addressing Barriers to LID." Fact Sheet. April. Available at www.epa.gov/region1/npdes/stormwater/assets/pdfs/AddressingBarrier2LID.pdf
This fact sheet addresses several concerns and barriers that arise when considering LID techniques, including cost, cold weather, groundwater, public safety, and regulatory concerns.
National Drought Mitigation Center. 2011. "Drought Ready Communities: A Guide to Community Drought Preparedness." Available at http://drought.unl.edu/Planning/PlanningProcesses/DroughtReadyCommunities.aspx
A guide that communities throughout the U.S. can use to understand and reduce their drought risk. The process outlined in the guide is broad-based, recognizing that drought creates problems that go beyond the scope of what water suppliers alone can address. Worksheets and other exercises can help communities see how drought has affected water supplies and overall community well-being in the past. The guide can also help communities identify their drought monitoring resources, so they can spot emerging drought. A planning section helps communities determine steps they can take to reduce their drought risk ahead of time. It also recommends planning responses to drought before the next one happens.
Shafer, M., and R. Riley. 2012. "Managing Drought in the Southern Plains: A summary of survey responses to the webinar series." Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program. Available at www.southernclimate.org/publications.php
Western Lands and Communities. 2012. "Drought Planning Resources."
Provides links to resources and information on best practices in drought planning in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Nevada.
Wilhite, Donald A., Michael J. Hayes, and Cody L. Knutson. 2005. "Drought Preparedness Planning: Building Institutional Capacity." Reprinted from D.A. Wilhite, ed. Drought and Water Crises: Science, Technology, and Management Issues Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Available at http://drought.unl.edu/portals/0/docs/10StepProcess.pdf
A 10-step planning process that has been adapted for use by cities, tribes, states, and countries around the world, and that has benefited from continuous refinement.
Best Practice Examples / Case Studies
Arizona Department of Water Resources Statewide Drought Program. www.azwater.gov/dwr/drought/
Provides information on Arizona's drought status, drought planning, water supplies, and up-to-date policies and declarations by the governor and various impact groups and committees.
Knutson, C., M. Hayes, and M. Svoboda. 2007. "Case Study of Tribal Drought Planning: The Hualapai Tribe." Natural Hazards Review 8(4): 125–131. Available at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/full/10.1061/%28ASCE%291527-6988%282007%298%3A4%28125%29
Phoenix, City of. 2011. "2011 Water Resource Plan." Water Services Department. Available at http://phoenix.gov/webcms/groups/internet/@inter/@dept/@wsd/
_____. 2011. "Drought Management Plan." Phoenix City Code (Chapter 37, Sections 121 and 130.2) Available at www.codepublishing.com/az/phoenix/frameless/index.pl?path=../html..
See also: Ferguson, D.B., C. Alvord, M. Crimmins, M. Hiza Redsteer, C. McNutt, M. Hayes, M. Svoboda, and R. Pulwarty. 2011. "Drought Preparedness for Tribes in the Four Corners Region." Report from April 2010 Workshop. Tucson, Ariz.: Climate Assessment for the Southwest. Available at www.drought.gov/imageserver/NIDIS/workshops/tribal/Drought-Preparedness-Tribal-Lands-FoursCorners-2011-1.pdf
California Department of Water Resources. 2008. "Urban Drought Guidebook: 2008 Updated Edition." Available at www.cuwcc.org/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=9740
A guidebook to help water suppliers cope with potentially severe drought and other water shortages. It provides specific examples of community supply augmentation and demand reduction strategies. These include: public information campaigns, landscape irrigation schedules, water restrictions and ordinances (for waste water, landscaping), modified water pricing, and tips for enforcement. Demand reduction measures by customer category (residential, commercial, institutional, industrial, etc.) are illustrated. The guidebook stresses that successful programs are the result of a cooperative effort between water suppliers and customers.
California Department of Water Resources et al. 2010. "20x2020 Water Conservation Plan." Available at www.water.ca.gov/wateruseefficiency/sb7/docs/20x2020plan.pdf
California Department of Water Resources. 2010. "California Drought Contingency Plan." Available at www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/docs/cwpu2009/0310final/v4c06a01_cwp2009.pdf
Eastern Municipal Water District (Western Riverside County, California) "Water Shortage Contingency Plan," Ordinance No. 117.2. Available at www.emwd.org/modules/showdocument.aspx?documentid=1005
"Recycled Water Use Ordinance 2335." Available at www.ci.redwood-city.ca.us/publicworks/pdf/Recycled_Water_Ordinance_Info_Sheet_6-20-08.pdf
The city's website uses a four-tiered, color-coded scale for communicating drought conditions to the public. www.sandiego.gov/water/
City of Santa Cruz Local Hazard Mitigation Plan 2007-2012. www.cityofsantacruz.com/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=8660
Colorado Water Conservation Board. "State Drought Planning." Available at http://cwcb.state.co.us/water-management/drought/Pages/StateDroughtPlanning.aspx
______. 2010. "Municipal Drought Management Plan Guidance Document." Available at http://cwcb.state.co.us/technical-resources/drought-planning-toolbox/Documents/DroughtPlanningResources/
A comprehensive overview of drought management planning in Colorado. This document should be used in conjunction with the information presented on the CWCB website as well as in CWCB's Drought Toolbox.
______. 2011. "Sample Municipal Drought Management Plan." Available at http://cwcbweblink.state.co.us/WebLink/ElectronicFile.aspx?docid=152834&searchid=aeddd809-6837-4698-8801-a23aa1149ac6&dbid=0
The sample Municipal Drought Management Plan is a complementary resource to the Municipal Drought Management Plan Guidance Document, both developed by the Colorado Water Conservation Board. These documents in conjunction with the Drought Toolbox and other drought related information on CWCB's website, serve as reference tools that water providers and local governments throughout the state may use to develop local drought management plans.
_______. 2011. "Innovations of the 2010 Colorado Drought Mitigation and Response Plan." PowerPoint presentation to UCOWR/NIWR at Boulder, Colorado, on July 14. Available at www.cwi.colostate.edu/UCOWR-NIWR/files/UCOWR_Presentations/34_-_Drought_Planning/Taryn_Hutchins-Cabibi/2011_UCOWR_drought_plan_innovations1.pdf
The Colorado Drought Mitigation and Response Plan was developed to provide an effective and systematic means for the State of Colorado to reduce the impacts of water shortages over the short or long term. The plan outlines a mechanism for coordinated drought monitoring, impact assessment, response to emergency drought problems, and mitigation of long-term drought impacts.
Boulder Drought Plan. 2010. Available at www.bouldercolorado.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4472&Itemid=1974
Denver Water. 2011. Drought Response Plan. Available at www.water.denver.co.gov/docs/assets/CECFBC95-E611-03E5-FD2B05E1B8A6B497/DroughtResponsePlan.pdf
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, et al. 2007. "Florida Drought Action Plan." www.dep.state.fl.us/drought/news/2007/files/florida_drought_action_plan.pdf
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2007. "Recommendations for a Drought-Resistant Florida." Available at www.dep.state.fl.us/drought/files/drought_smart_report.pdf
Florida Administrative Weekly and Florida Administrative Code. "Rule Chapter 40D-21". https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=40D-21 Covers state administrative rules for water shortages in Florida.
Tampa Bay Water Utility, Tampa Bay, www.wucaonline.org/assets/pdf/puma_presentation_tampa.pdf and www.tampabaywater.org/index.aspx Example of conjunctive use of multiple water sources including seawater desalination.
Georgia, State of. 2003. "Georgia Drought Management Plan." Available at www.georgiaplanning.com/watertoolkit/Documents/
Athens-Clarke County, Georgia
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ecosystems Research Division. 2010. "Water Management Plan." June. www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/documents/athens-ord_wmp_508.pdf
Hecht, J., and V. Knapp. 2008. "Data for assessing drought vulnerability of Illinois's community surface water systems." Contract Report 2008-02. Available at www.isws.illinois.edu/pubdoc/CR/ISWSCR2008-02.pdf
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Water. Division of Water. 2009. Indiana's Water Shortage Plan. www.in.gov/dnr/files/watshplan.pdf
Kansas Water Office. 2011. 2011 Kansas Drought Response Guidelines for Public Water Suppliers. July. www.kwo.org/reports_publications/Drought/rpt_2011_Drought_Response
Governor's Drought Response Team. 2009. Responding to Drought: A Guide for City, County and Water System Officials. November. www.kwo.org/reports_publications/Drought/Rpt_drought_guide_113009_twl.pdf
Governor's Drought Task Force. "Drought Monitoring Working Group." Reports available at www.ose.state.nm.us/DroughtTaskForce/MonitoringWorkGroup/wk-monitoring.html
Oregon Environmental Council. "Low Impact Development: Protecting Oregon's Water as We Grow." Fact Sheet. Available at www.oeconline.org/our-work/rivers/rivers-files/lid-oregon-fact-sheet
Water Resources Board. 2002. "Rhode Island Drought Management Plan." Report Number 104. Providence: Rhode Island Department of Administration Information Services. www.planning.ri.gov/landuse/dmp.htm
Tennessee Department of Environment & Conservation. 2010. Drought Management Plan. Available at www.tn.gov/environment/dws/pdf/droughtmgtplan.pdf
________. 2009. Guidance for Developing Community Water System Drought Management Plans. Available at http://tn.gov/environment/dws/pdf/droughtmgtplan_guidance.pdf
Texas Water Development Board
TWDB's mission is to ensure that Texas is prepared for drought, not only by overseeing and maintaining a state water plan, but also through financing a significant portion of water and wastewater infrastructure for the state, including the matching funds for the Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Funds.
San Antonio, City of. "Drought-tolerant Grass." www.saws.org/conservation/ordinance/turfgrass/
San Antonio, City of. Drought Operations Plan www.sanantonio.gov/oep/pdf/Drought%20Operations%20Plan.pdf
San Marcos, City of. Drought Response Ordinance www.ci.san-marcos.tx.us/modules/showdocument.aspx?documentid=4458 and www.ci.san-marcos.tx.us/index.aspx?page=542
RIVER BASIN APPROACHES TO WATER MANAGEMENT
Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. 2010. "River Basin Approaches to Water Management in the Mid-Atlantic States." A report for the the Mid-Atlantic Water Program. http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/ua466.pdf
This publication discusses five emerging interstate water management issues that river basin commissions are facing or will face. These issues illustrate how quickly a new water use or concern can alter the interests of a resource's stakeholders. The discussion also demonstrates how important it is to keep up with water issues and how vulnerable water can be.
Delaware River Basin Commission www.state.nj.us/drbc/programs/flow/ and www.state.nj.us/drbc/programs/supply/policies/index.html
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River National Quality Assessment Program http://ga.water.usgs.gov/nawqa/