This is an online resource for planners and researchers seeking an interdisciplinary, annotated bibliography of literature that explores some the trends that have resulted from massive regional shifts in population and jobs over the past several decades including minorities in the majority, aging population and re-urbanization.
New publications and educational opportunities will be added periodically so please revisit this list to see the most current ideas about the Changing Face of America.
A Note on the Availability of Resources
Articles from Planning magazine are available online to members of APA.
Articles from JAPA, Zoning Practice, Planning & Environmental Law, and PAS Memo are available to those publications' subscribers in varying online formats. JAPA articles in the bibliography contain an access link for subscribers who are also APA members.
Click on a header to view the resources in that category:
Current Articles and Research
APA Planning Advisory Service. 2008. "Housing an Aging Population." Essential Information Packet 21: American Planning Association. Preview available at www.planning.org/pas/infopackets/pdf/EIP-21.pdf.
- The demographics of America's communities are rapidly changing. As the country's population grows older, the demand for adequate services and resources for aging in place is quickly increasing. Learn more about the implications of this demographic shift and how communities are planning and zoning to house and support the elderly. This Essential Info Packet provides APA resources, reports, plans, and sample ordinances for a range of senior housing options to help you address this issue in your community. This packet is available free of charge to Planning Advisory Service subscribing agencies.
American Planning Association. 2011. "Multigenerational Planning: Using Smart Growth and Universal Design to Link the Needs of Children and the Aging Population." Family-Friendly Communities Briefing Papers 2. Available at www.planning.org/research/family/briefingpapers/pdf/multigenerational.pdf.
- This brief explains how multigenerational planning creates new coalition-building opportunities. It delves into civic participation and engagement and why it is essential for all age groups. Finally it explores why an understanding of the needs of multiple generations and planning through the life cycle is essential to smart growth and sustainable design and development.
Arvidson, Adam Regn, and Stephen Carter-Novotni. 2011. "Here's to Long Life." Planning. May, 10-15. Available at www.planning.org/planning/2011/aug/longlife.htm.
- This article explores how communities that bolster senior services by creating multimodal transportation options, affordable housing options, and community exercise programs can benefit from retirees who volunteer, support the arts, mentor, and continue in the work force.
Barnett, Jonathan. 2008. Redesigning Cities : Principles, Practice, Implementation. Chicago: APA Planners Press. Available at www.planning.org/APAStore/Search/Default.aspx?p=3741.
- Barnett explains how design can reshape suburban growth patterns, revitalize older cities, and retrofit metropolitan areas where earlier development decisions went wrong. He describes in detail specific techniques, materials, and technologies that should be known (but often aren't) to planners, public officials, concerned citizens, and others involved in development.
Berg, Nate. 2009. "The Big Shift: The Nation Adapts to Its Growing Minority Population." Planning. July, 18-21. Available at www.planning.org/planning/2009/jul/bigshift.htm.
- Demographic roles are switching in the U.S., bringing on what many have labeled the "minority majority" — a future where the ethnic and racial groups we now call minorities tip the scales. As more and more cities face these population changes, cities will have to start thinking about how their planning processes need to evolve.
Gabel-Luddy, Emily. 2004. "Planning for Diversity: Lessons from the Los Angeles Design Action Planning Team Program." PAS Memo. September. Available at www.planning.org/pas/memo/2004/sep/.
- When working in an ethnically diverse community, planners face the challenge of understanding land uses unique to certain populations. This issue looks back at the successful approach of the Los Angeles Design Action Planning Team program, held in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as one way that planners can mobilize resources to meet the needs of minority populations and help them develop a sense of place and community identification.
Lang, Robert, Mariela Alfonzo, and Casey Dawkins. "American Demographics – Circa 2109." Planning. May, 10-15. Available at www.planning.org/planning/2009/may/demographics2109.htm.
- This article presents predictions of America's population and demographics in 2109 based on measurements and analyses conducted in 2009. Barring major catastrophes, the size of the future population is estimated at around 600 million, with the center point population estimated to be moving both south and west. Immigration will continue to fuel growth as well as racial and ethnic mixing. Estimates are based on U.S. census data and the authors' own research.
Nelson, Arthur, and Robert Lang. 2011. Megapolitan America. Chicago: APA Planners Press.
- In popular imagination, America is the land of wide open spaces. But in reality, much of it is more densely populated than Europe. Two-thirds of the U.S. population lives on less than 20 percent of the privately owned land, clustered in 20-some megapolitan areas — networks of metropolitan centers fused by common economic, physical, social, and cultural traits. This book draws on detailed data to map out the dramatic — and surprisingly positive — shifts ahead. Backed by hard numbers, Nelson and Lang argue for long-range planning that sheds outdated images and stokes the nation's economic engines. Read about the authors at www.planning.org/apastore/meet/2011/megapolitan.htm.
Planning and the Black Community Division, APA. 2009. "Vision for Broadway." Final Report: PBCD Technical Assistance for Gary, Indiana. Available at www.planning.org/divisions/blackcommunity/pdf/garyindinana.pdf.
- Broadway, the city's major transportation artery and the former symbol of Gary's strength, now features the most obvious expressions of the city's decline. This report is the culmination of a community vision that would strike a balance between encouraging development while protecting the sense of place. The project identified strategies — including equitable development, smart growth, context sensitive design, and heritage preservation — that local officials could consider for facilitating development along the urban corridor while protecting the cultural heritage and cherished institutions that could be leveraged to create a "place-making dividend" for the city.
Schilling, Joseph, and Alan Mallach. 2012. Cities in Transition: A Guide for Practicing Planners. Planning Advisory Service Report no. 568. Chicago: American Planning Association. Available at www.planning.org/apastore/Search/Default.aspx?p=4191.
- This report is a compendium of ideas and strategies for practicing planners to address and create more resilient and sustainable communities based on 10 years of fieldwork and policy work with planners, policy makers, and community leaders. In case studies from cities in the Rust Belt, the Sun Belt, and abroad, readers will find examples of urban recovery at work and will come away with concrete ideas for making transitional cities stronger, healthier, and more resilient.
Talen, Emily. 2010. "Fixing the Mess We Made: How to Correct the Problems Caused by Sprawl." Planning. November, 32-36. Available at www.planning.org/planning/2010/nov/fixingthemess.htm.
- The article provides an overview of the likely new urban and suburban approach to growth in the 21st century: sprawl repair. Unlike attempts to restrict development or alter it in new greenfield construction, like new urbanism and neo-traditional planning, the concept of sprawl repair essentially repurposes existing suburban forms to increase intensity or density by retrofitting dead malls, underused parking lots, and the like.
Background/Historic Articles and Research/Non–APA Resources
Hunden, Robert Scott, Deborah McGill, and James S. Russell. October 18-19, 2012. "Real Estate Development and Reuse." Presentation for the International Economic Development Council in Atlanta. More information available at www.planning.org/cm/search/event.htm?EventID=18162.
- This course clearly articulates the eight-stage process for real estate development and reuse. Specifically, course participants will learn the fundamentals of market and site analysis, financial feasibility, and what political considerations are required to move a development project from conception to realization. Additionally, this course will cover a wide variety of financing tools that are available at the local, regional, and state levels.
Hutton, Thomas A. 2008. The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the Twenty-First-Century Metropolis. New York: Routledge.
- This monograph examines the post-industrial landscape as it is being transformed by the technology sector. A description of the new urban economy and case studies of four international cities are accompanied by a literature review and a theoretical framework.
Anderson, Kristen, Dowell Myers, Keith Wardrip, and J. Raitt. 2010. " Multigenerational Planning (S499)." Webcast from Virtual Session 2010. Available at https://cms.psav.com/library/APA/mylibrary/search/session/0/482_107.
- As U.S. cities undergo profound demographic change, it's time to examine the need for communities built for residents across the life cycle. Explore connections between the planning needs of families with young children and of the elderly who would like to age in place. Attention will be given to housing, services, and care supports.
Gourguechon, Jacques A., and Leonard F. Heumann. 2011."Planning for an Aging Population." Available at www.planning.org/resources/ontheradar/aging/pdf/planningagingwebcast.pdf.
- With the Baby Boomer Generation retiring and a large segment of the population entering old age, planners have a new set of demands for planning communities and developments that address these changing demographics. This webcast provides some guidance and tools from experts in the field.
Hanlon, Bernadette. 2012. "Crossing Into New Territory: Suburban Immigration and Local Government Reactions in the Washington DC Region." Available at www.utah-apa.org/webcast-archive.
- This webcast discusses the many immigrants bypassing cities and moving directly into suburbs. Learn about the new geography of immigration and differing policies at the federal, state, and local levels, focusing on the Washington, D.C., area.
Kahrl, Andrew. 2011. "The Plight of Black Coastal Landowners in the Sunbelt South and Its Lessons for Post–Housing Bubble America." Presentation for Tuesdays at APA–Chicago. Available at www.planning.org/tuesdaysatapa/2011/chicago/apr.htm.
- At the turn of the 20th century, African Americans owned vast swaths of property along America's shores. By the post–World War II era, African American beaches and resorts served as important places for working families to escape from the daily indignities of Jim Crow and for a separate, seasonal black leisure economy to take shape. The death of Jim Crow coincided with the emergence of a pro-growth, corporate-friendly Sunbelt economy, which led to massive resort and residential development in coastal areas, and the targeting of black coastal landowners as the path of least resistance. From the 1960s to the present, African American property owners in areas targeted for leisure-based economic and real estate development have struggled to fend off various schemes deployed by developers and their allies in municipal, county, and state governments to expropriate and put valuable property to "best use."
Reuter, Dan, Nancy Lovingood, and Holly Storck. 2010. "From Boomburg to Build Out (S470)." Webcast from Virtual Session 2010. Available at https://cms.psav.com/library/APA/mylibrary/search/session/0/482_81.
- Long one of the Atlanta region's economic engines, Gwinnett County faces the new millennium with dwindling land resources, a newly diverse socioeconomic makeup, aging infrastructure, massive congestion, and redevelopment challenges. Hear how its Unified Plan uses leading-edge approaches and tools to address these challenges and guide its future.
Shipp, Stephanie, Raphael Rabalais, and Joseph MacDonald. 2010. "Surprising Demographics (S418)." Webcast from Virtual Session 2010. Available at https://cms.psav.com/library/APA/mylibrary/search/session/0/482_31.
- What surprises do demographics have in store for us? Learn about population changes post–Katrina and the unexpected use of Phoenix's light-rail system.
Vasandani, Mahender. 2010. "The Evolution of Our Suburbs." Presentation for Tuesdays at APA–Chicago. Available at www.planning.org/tuesdaysatapa/2010/mar.htm.
- For the last few decades the Chicago region has been suburbanizing with little regard to energy use, climate change, and urban form. The relentless pursuit of property tax revenue and a focus on single uses and single-site developments distracts many suburban communities from the task of planning for a sustainable and livable built environment. As planners, what should be our approach to the future of our suburbs? Can we afford to continue the growth and development patterns of the past few decades? Are there new growth patterns and new development tools that we can get ready now to be prepared for a different future?
Warner, Mildred E. 2012. "The Economic Impacts and Opportunities of Families: Children, Elders and Caregivers." Available at www.utah-apa.org/webcast-archive.
- This webcast discusses the impacts of providing care throughout the life cycle.
Rucker, Della, and Nick Bowden. November 9, 2012. "Reaching the Ones Who Don't Show Up: Using Web 2.0 Tools for Better Public Involvement." Presentation at APA's Ohio Chapter. More information available at www.planning.org/cm/search/event.htm?EventID=18844.
- The usual public meetings aren't attracting large portions of populations, and many of the people are more likely to use email and web sites than to show up for a council meeting. This presentation will explore several different online public participation techniques, from surveying to idea prioritizing and ongoing project management.
American Planning Association. April 14, 2012. "Student: Enhancing Social Equity through Green Infrastructure (W008S)." Workshop at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Learn how LA has used green infrastructure investments to enhance neighborhood quality of life, flooding mitigation, and economic outcomes in underserved neighborhoods. Explore the significant challenges of bringing new watershed design techniques to minority and underserved communities. Consider property owner involvement in redesigning lawns, driveways, and sidewalks in areas where chronic flooding, poor street conditions, and a lack of lighting have eroded trust.
Howe, Deborah A., et al. April 16, 2012. "Creating Child- and Age-Friendly Communities (S543)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Examine the demographic changes facing U.S. communities and the challenges the current fiscal crisis creates for service delivery to dependent populations, such as children and the elderly. Explore new delivery models that integrate rather than segregate services. Learn about planning approaches that link needs across generations and sectors to build more integrated communities that support residents throughout the life cycle. Hosted by the Planning and Women Division.
Keyes, Laura Marie, and Brad Calvert. April 16, 2012. "Creating Communities for Lifelong Living (S557)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
To support healthy aging, it is important to have communities where people can live throughout a lifetime and where older adults can age in place. Hear about groundbreaking place-based efforts to create lifelong communities in the Atlanta and Denver regions. Using GIS analysis and planners' expertise, agencies are creating new communities and retrofitting existing ones to accommodate people of all ages.
Lang, Rob. April 15, 2012. "Megapolitan America (P009)." Dinner program at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- What are the megatrends that will consume planners for the next two decades? Rob Lang will present the findings from his latest book, Megapolitan America.
Laughlin, Michael P. April 17, 2012. "Latino Urbanism: Retrofitting a Car Centric Suburb (W062)." Workshop at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Explore how Latino culture shapes the built environment. As immigrants settle in Los Angeles, they bring with them different ways of using urban spaces and layer them onto the existing built environment. Their experiences and expectations can be seen in the way Latinos retrofit the urban design of the streets. View some of LA's most vivid and unique landscapes on this walking tour.
Lum, Matthew, Alexander Holsheimer, and Beth Rodin. April 15, 2012. "Public Markets as Sites for Immigrant Entrepreneurship (S501)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Examine the results of research into the ability of public markets to serve as business incubators and expand opportunities for immigrant entrepreneurs. The Thai Community Development Center, a nonprofit dedicated to community and economic development in the greater Los Angeles area, explores whether a public market housed in a multi-tenant warehouse with shared services can improve the situation of recent immigrant entrepreneurs.
Lynott, Jana Marie, Rodney Harrell, and Allison M. Brooks. April 17, 2012. "Housing for the Boomers and Beyond (S621)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
Examine the evolution of housing patterns and predict likely changes based on an aging population. Hear how disability rates, family structures, foreclosure rates, and the age of homes have shifted in the decade as older households adapt to face new and continuing challenges. Learn what's being done to address issues of affordability.
Mack, Karen E. April 16, 2012. "Ethnic Communities in Los Angeles (W040)." Workshop at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Consider economic development in culturally rich, largely immigrant, low-income neighborhoods. Explore the rich traditions, history, art, cuisine, and community and discuss why some are able to leverage their cultural assets into increased tourist and economic activity while others struggle with disinvestment, poverty, and physical deterioration.
Myers, Dowell. April 15, 2012. "The Changing Face of America (P007)." Dinner program at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Who are we planning for? Demographics change quickly in a highly mobile society; who will be living in our communities 20 years from now? What are the population dynamics that we all need to be aware of? Dowell Myers, a contributor to Planning Los Angeles, will add insight to the Changing Face of America.
Nelson, Jeremy, Maxwell Richardson, and Galatea King. April 14, 2012. "Using Public Health Data for Planning (S433)."
- Examine the public health data, information, and tools available through the California Environmental Health Tracking Program website. A live demonstration of this interactive website will focus on ways to enhance city and regional planning efforts. Discussion will encourage feedback on improvements needed to make data more relevant to planners working to address public health concerns in their communities.
Padilla, Katherine et al. April 15, 2012. "American Suburbs and Latino Transformations (W004)." Workshop at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
Tour several places in Los Angeles County where Latinos have transformed main streets, blue-collar suburbs and shopping centers. Experience the vibrancy and diversity of LA's Latino neighborhoods. Learn why these places are anything but stereotypical ethnic enclaves. Gain insights into the ever changing landscape of demographic and economic diversity in cities and regions throughout the U.S.
Preston, Steven A., Dowell Myers, Sylvia Lewis, and Linda M. Jackson. April 15, 2012. "A Demographic Picture of America (S477)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Today's finely grained demographic data presents a textured picture of America. In a globalizing world, not only is the profile of Americans changing, but the implications of immigration have the potential to shape America's relationships with other countries.
Schilling, Joseph. April 15, 2012. "Planning for Prosperity (P008)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- How can shrinking cities be regenerated? Joe Schilling will present APA's new PAS Report, Cities in Transition.
Silver, Mitchell J., and Sarah C. Treuhaft. April 17, 2012. "Planning for the Demographic Remix (S626)." Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- America's greatest demographic shift will occur in the 21st century. The graying and browning of America, generational shifts, and fewer married couples and children will change the way we plan. The rise of the millennials and aging of the boomers will change market demand for housing and transportation choices. How will communities adapt to these dramatic changes?
Varma, Arthi L., Bill Watanabe, and Chanchanit Martorell. April 16, 2012. "Los Angeles Asian-Pacific Islander Communities (S531). Presentation at the APA 2012 National Planning Conference.
- Investigate how Asian-Pacific Islander communities in Los Angeles are changing the face of America by challenging outdated public perceptions about ethnic communities and shifting the stance from inward-oriented ethnic enclave to outwardly welcoming all. Develop strategies to enhance economic development through tourism in ethnic communities without jeopardizing cultural identity and practices.